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Objective—To determine the frequency of viral detection in conjunctival samples from client-owned domestic dogs with naturally acquired idiopathic conjunctivitis and to identify signalment, historical, and clinical findings positively associated with viral detection.

Design—Case-control study

Animals—30 dogs with naturally acquired idiopathic conjunctivitis and a control population of 30 dogs without ocular disease.

Procedures—Complete physical and ophthalmic examinations were performed for each dog. Conjunctival swab specimens were analyzed by use of virus isolation and PCR assays for the following viruses: canine adenovirus-2 (CAV-2), canine distemper virus, canine herpesvirus-1 (CHV-1), canine parainfuenza virus, canine respiratory coronavirus, infuenza A virus, and West Nile virus. Signalment, clinical, and historical information was recorded and compared between study groups.

Results—Viruses were detected by either virus isolation or PCR methods significantly more frequently in conjunctival samples from dogs with conjunctivitis (7/30 [23.3%]) than dogs without conjunctivitis (0/30 [0%]). Canine herpesvirus-1 was isolated from 2 conjunctival samples and detected by use of PCR assay in 5 conjunctival samples. Canine adenovirus-2 was isolated from 1 conjunctival sample and detected by use of PCR assay in 2 conjunctiva samples. Sexually intact dogs and frequent exposure to dogs outside the household were positively associated with viral detection in the conjunctivitis group

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that CHV-1 and CAV-2 are common etiologic agents of conjunctivitis in domestic dogs. Risk factors for viral conjunctivitis in dogs reflected increased exposure to other dogs and opportunities for contact with infectious secretions.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Praziquantel was used successfully for treatment of a small number of dogs and 1 cat infected with Paragonimus kellicotti. To further evaluate the usefulness of this drug in treating such infections, 7 cats and 7 dogs were inoculated orally with metacercariae (12 and 20 to 22, respectively) obtained from crayfish, then were treated after the infections became patent; 2 cats and 2 dogs served as noninfected controls. Beginning 1 week before infection, and continuing weekly thereafter, physical, hematologic, and fecal examinations were performed on each animal; thoracic radiography was performed every other week. By postinoculation week 6, all dogs given metacercariae had patent infection diagnosed on the basis of positive results of fecal examination. By postinoculation week 7, 5 cats had confirmed patent infection, but 2 cats given metacercariae never had patent infection or had signs of infection. Clinical signs of infection were minor and included increased respiratory tract noise, slight inducible cough, or mild dyspnea. Transient eosinophilia was detected in dogs around postinoculation week 3. Pretreatment radiography revealed cavitated lesions in cats only; pleural lines and patchy infiltrates in cats and dogs; or pneumothorax in dogs only. The treatment regimen consisted of 23 mg of praziquantel/kg of body weight given every 8 hours for 3 days; 1 infected cat and dog were not treated. By 11 days after treatment, eggs had disappeared from the feces of infected animals, and marked resolution of lung lesions was evident radiographically. The 2 untreated animals and 1 treated dog were euthanatized and necropsied to verify lesions and their resolution. All treated animals were considered cured of infection by use of this treatment regimen.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To estimate heritabilities and genetic correlations among 4 traits of hip joints (distraction index [DI], dorsolateral subluxation [DLS] score, Norberg angle [NA], and extended–hip joint radiograph [EHR] score) and to derive the breeding values for these traits in dogs.

Animals—2,716 dogs of 17 breeds (1,551 dogs in which at least 1 hip joint trait was measured).

Procedures—The NA was measured, and an EHR score was assigned. Hip joint radiographs were obtained from some dogs to allow calculation of the DI and DLS score. Heritabilities, genetic correlations, and breeding values among the DI, DLS score, NA, and EHR score were calculated by use of a set of multiple-trait, derivative-free, restricted maximum likelihood computer programs.

Results—Among 2,716 dogs, 1,411 (52%) had an estimated inbreeding coefficient of 0%; the remaining dogs had a mean inbreeding coefficient of 6.21%. Estimated heritabilities were 0.61, 0.54, 0.73, and 0.76 for the DI, DLS score, NA, and EHR score, respectively. The EHR score was highly genetically correlated with the NA (r = −0.89) and was moderately genetically correlated with the DI (r = 0.69) and DLS score (r = −0.70). The NA was moderately genetically correlated with the DI (r = −0.69) and DLS score (r = 0.58). Genetic correlation between the DI and DLS score was high (r = −0.91).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Establishment of a selection index that makes use of breeding values jointly estimated from the DI, DLS score, NA, and EHR score should enhance breeding programs to reduce the incidence of hip dysplasia in dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research