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  • Author or Editor: William H. Whitehouse x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe the clinical findings, microbiological data, treatment, and outcome of a population of cats with suspected acute pyelonephritis (APN).

ANIMALS

32 client-owned cats.

CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND PROCEDURES

Retrospective case series from 2 veterinary teaching hospitals between January 1, 2014, and December 31, 2020. Cats were included if they had a positive bacterial urine culture and a clinical diagnosis of acute kidney injury.

RESULTS

Older female cats with underlying chronic kidney disease have a higher probability to develop bacterial culture–positive acute kidney injury or APN. Escherichia coli was the most commonly cultured bacterial species, and E coli isolates with susceptibility testing were resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanate but susceptible to fluoroquinolones or third-generation cephalosporins. Of the 20 cats with available follow-up information in the medical record, 14 were alive at 3 months after hospital discharge. Markers of renal function including creatinine (P = .008), BUN (P = .005), and phosphorus (P < .001) at the time of presentation were all higher in nonsurvivors compared with survivors.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The survival rate with feline APN is higher than previous reports of acute kidney injury when all etiologies are considered. Nonsurvivors had more pronounced azotemia upon initial presentation. Amoxicillin-clavulanate was a poor empirical antimicrobial in this cohort based on the microbiological data.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine if left ventricular systolic function on echocardiography, systemic blood pressure, and electrocardiography change with a clinically accepted intravenous (IV) diltiazem constant rate infusion (CRI) compared to a control.

ANIMALS

10 healthy client-owned adult dogs.

PROCEDURES

Prospective, masked, crossover study from May 27, 2021, to August 22, 2021. Dogs were randomized to receive diltiazem (loading dose of 240 μg/kg, IV followed by a CRI of 6 μg/kg/min for 300 minutes) or the same volume of 5% dextrose in water (D5W) administered IV followed by the opposite intervention after a 7-day washout. Blood pressure was monitored during each CRI, and echocardiographic and electrocardiographic studies were performed immediately before the CRI and during the last hour of the CRI.

RESULTS

Postdiltiazem systolic time interval (STI) (median, 0.30; range, 0.16 to 0.34) was significantly lower than post-D5W STI (median, 0.32; range, 0.22 to 0.40; P = .046). All other echocardiographic parameters did not differ significantly between each of the groups after receiving diltiazem or D5W. Systemic blood pressure did not change significantly with either diltiazem (P = .450) or D5W (P = .940), and none of the dogs became hypotensive at any point in the study. Expectedly, negative dromotropy was observed with diltiazem.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

A significant decrease in left ventricular systolic function was not appreciated in healthy dogs receiving diltiazem at a clinically accepted intravenous infusion rate at this dosing regimen. Further studies are needed in dogs with cardiac disease.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research