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  • Author or Editor: Wailani Sung x
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To investigate the relationship of litter box location as it relates to cats' use of space in the house, elimination problems, and certain behaviors associated with elimination.

Sample Population—40 cats in single-cat house-holds with or without elimination behavior problems (20 cats/group).

Procedures—Camcorders were used to record the cats' behaviors at the litter box and other areas in which they eliminated during a 72-hour period. Use of space in the house was recorded by direct observation during 400 minutes of the 72-hour period. Elimination behaviors and other cat- and litter box–associated variables were compared between groups; litter box location with respect to inappropriate elimination was assessed.

Results—Litter box location did not differ between cats with and without elimination behavior problems. An inverse correlation was found between time spent sniffing and the distance of the litter box from the central core area. Cats with elimination problems spent significantly less time digging at the litter box than cats without elimination problems. There was no significant difference in the time spent pawing in litter box, sniffing, or covering excreta after elimination between the 2 groups of cats.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Times spent digging in litter boxes by cats with and without elimination problems have been determined, and data suggest that actual digging times could be used as a means to test for litter preference and litter aversion. This information may also be used to identify cats with litter aversion prior to the development of an elimination problem.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To evaluate use of clomipramine, alprazolam, and behavior modification for treatment of storm phobia in dogs.

Design—Prospective open clinical trial.

Animals—40 dogs with storm phobia.

Procedure—Dogs received clomipramine at a dosage of 2 mg/kg (0.9 mg/lb), PO, every 12 hours for 3 months; then 1 mg/kg (0.45 mg/lb), PO, every 12 hours for 2 weeks; then 0.5 mg/kg (0.23 mg/lb), PO, every 12 hours for 2 weeks. Alprazolam was given at a dosage of 0.02 mg/kg (0.009 mg/lb), PO, as needed 1 hour before anticipated storms and every 4 hours as needed. Desensitization and counter-conditioning were conducted at home by the caregiver with an audio simulation of storm sounds that had induced a fear response during evaluation.

Results—30 of the 32 dogs that completed the study had a degree of improvement, as measured by caregivers' global assessment. Two caregivers considered the storm phobia to be resolved. Panting, pacing, trembling, remaining near the caregiver, hiding, excessive salivation, destructiveness, excessive vocalization, self-trauma, and inappropriate elimination all decreased significantly during treatment. Improvement was greater during true storms (rain, thunder, and lightning) than during rain only. Response to audio simulation did not change during treatment. Four months after the study, improvement was maintained.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The combination of clomipramine, alprazolam, and behavior modification can be effective in decreasing or eliminating storm phobia. Improvement could not be evaluated by use of audio simulation of a storm. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003; 222:744–748)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association