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  • Author or Editor: Vladimir Jekl x
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CASE DESCRIPTION A 3-year-old sexually intact male rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) was evaluated because of a 1-day history of signs of anorexia and depression.

CLINICAL FINDINGS Clinical examination revealed signs of depression, hunched posture, low skin elasticity (suggesting dehydration), slightly distended abdomen, and penile and preputial edema. The owner reported that the rabbit had been fed a routine diet, received water via a sipper bottle, and was allowed free movement around the home. It had been observed by the owner to bite and chew gypsum-based plaster from the walls of the home. Abdominal radiography and ultrasonography revealed radiopaque material in the urinary bladder, irregular thickening of the urinary bladder wall, and gaseous distention of the cecum. Urinalysis revealed mild hematuria and proteinuria. Results of the physical examination and other diagnostic tests were consistent with urolithiasis, cystitis, and gastrointestinal stasis.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME At clinical examination, numerous small uroliths originating from the urethral orifice were removed and submitted for composition analysis via infrared and Raman spectrometry and polarized microscopy. Laparotomy-assisted flushing of the urinary bladder and urethra was performed, and the rabbit recovered without complication. Results of composition analysis indicated the uroliths were composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE This is the first report of calcium sulfate urolithiasis in a rabbit, which was attributed to dehydration (possibly due to inadequate water provision) and excessive dietary intake of sulfur in the form of gypsum-based plaster. Rabbits should be prevented from consuming plaster and other potential extradietary sources of sulfur and provided an appropriate water supply.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To report the prevalence and document the treatment and outcome of odontogenic abscesses and associated jaw osteomyelitis in pet rabbits.


200 client-owned rabbits.


Pet rabbits surgically treated using extraoral teeth extraction with marsupialization for abscesses of dental origin and jaw osteomyelitis were included in the study (February 2018 to February 2023). A case must have had pre- and postoperative computed tomographic study and a follow-up period of at least 4 months.


In total, 113 male and 87 female rabbits were treated surgically. The mean age at the time of the diagnosis at the authors' clinic was 3 years and 11 months. Male rabbits suffered from odontogenic abscesses significantly more often than females. The mean surgical time varied from 25 to 95 minutes, based on the severity of the pathology and location. The wound healed completely in an average of 39.7 days (range, 14 to 145 days; 95% CI, 36.9 to 42.5 days). Major complications detected in 18.5% (37/200) cases were associated with prolonged healing time mostly due to the formation of a bone sequestrum and gingival suture failure. The disease-free time following abscess resolution was on average 29 months (range, 4 to 60 months). The recurrence of the odontogenic infection was 8% (16/200 cases).


The radical surgical technique with the extraction of all the infected teeth with the removal of all affected tissue and osteomyelitic bone and regular follow-up wound management is an effective method for the treatment of odontogenic abscesses with jaw osteomyelitis.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association