Objective—To compare plasma clearance of inulin and iohexol determined by use of 9 plasma samples for evaluation of glomerular filtration rate in dogs and to evaluate limited-sample approaches for evaluation of plasma clearance of these markers.
Animals—43 dogs of various breeds that weighed between 5.5 and 63 kg and that had various degrees of renal function.
Procedures—9 plasma samples were obtained from each dog at 5 minutes to 6 hours after IV bolus injection of iohexol and inulin. Clearance was calculated by use of results for all 9 samples (ie, reference method). Results for 3 limited-sample strategies for determination of plasma clearance of iohexol and inulin were compared with results for the reference method.
Results—Mean clearance of inulin and iohexol for the reference method was 2.72 and 2.48 mL/min/kg, respectively. The mean difference between clearance of these 2 markers for the reference method was 0.24 mL/min/kg. In general, use of the limited-sample strategies yielded clearance values similar to those for the reference method. More accurate estimates of clearance were obtained for iohexol than for inulin by use of the limited-sample methods.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Use of iohexol and inulin yielded similar but not identical results for plasma clearance. Accuracy for limited-sample methods would be acceptable for many clinical and research situations. (Am J Vet Res 2010;71:1100–1107)
Objective—To compare pharmacokinetics and clearances of creatinine and iohexol as estimates of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in dogs with various degrees of renal function.
Animals—50 Great Anglo-Francais Tricolor Hounds with various degrees of renal function.
Procedures—Boluses of iohexol (40 mg/kg) and creatinine (647 mg/kg) were injected IV. Blood samples were collected before administration and 5 and 10 minutes and 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours after administration. Plasma creatinine and iohexol concentrations were assayed via an enzymatic method and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively. A noncompartmental approach was used for pharmacokinetic analysis. Pharmacokinetic variables were compared via a Bland-Altman plot and an ANOVA.
Results—Compared with results for creatinine, iohexol had a significantly higher mean ± SD plasma clearance (3.4 ± 0.8 mL/min/kg vs 3.0 ± 0.7 mL/min/kg) and a significantly lower mean volume of distribution at steady state (250 ± 37 mL/kg vs 539 ± 73 mL/kg), mean residence time (80 ± 31 minutes vs 195 ± 73 minutes), and mean elimination half-life (74 ± 20 minutes vs 173 ± 53 minutes). Despite discrepancies between clearances, especially for high values, the difference was < 0.6 mL/min/kg for 34 (68%) dogs. Three dogs with a low GFR (< 2 mL/min/kg) were classified similarly by both methods.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Plasma iohexol and creatinine clearances can be used interchangeably for screening patients suspected of having chronic kidney disease (ie, low GFR), but large differences may exist for dogs with a GFR within or above the reference range.