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  • Author or Editor: Thomas A. Robertson x
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Objective—To compare characteristics and enzymatic products of leukocytes detected in the skin and laminar tissues of horses administered black walnut heartwood extract (BWHE) and horses administered purified lipopolysaccharide (LPS).

Animals—25 healthy 5- to 15-year-old horses.

Procedures—Horses were randomly assigned to receive LPS (20 ng of O55:B5 Escherichia coli endotoxin/kg; n = 5) IV or 6 L of BWHE (10) or water (control group; 10) via nasogastric intubation. Horses were euthanatized 12 hours after treatment or at onset of Obel grade 1 lameness. Laminar tissue samples and skin samples from the middle region of the neck were harvested at the time of euthanasia. Leukocyte emigration (determined via CD13 immunohistochemical analysis) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 gene expressions and activities (determined via reverse transcription PCR assay and gelatin zymography, respectively) were measured in skin and laminar tissue samples.

Results—Tissues of horses receiving BWHE contained significantly higher numbers of CD13-positive cells and increased MMP-9 gene expression and activity, compared with findings in the other 2 groups. Values for laminar tissue and skin from LPS-treated horses were not increased, compared with findings in the control group, in any experiment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that BWHE administration causes increases in CD13-positive leukocyte numbers and MMP-9 expression and activity in laminar tissue and skin in horses; similar effects were not detected following LPS administration. Leukocyte emigration in horses with experimentally induced endotoxemia and in horses administered BWHE differed markedly, thereby providing additional evidence that the development of laminitis involves more complex mechanisms than endotoxemia-induced leukocyte activation alone.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine the history, clinicopathologic findings, and results of surgery for effusive-constrictive pericarditis associated with Coccidioides immitis infection in dogs.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—17 client-owned dogs that underwent a subtotal pericardectomy and epicardial excision.

Procedure—Hospital records from May 1999 to June 2003 were reviewed. Data collected included history, clinicopathologic findings, treatments, and outcome. Follow-up information was obtained via recheck examination and by use of standardized telephone interviews with referring veterinarians and owners.

Results—All dogs were of large breeds, and most were male (mean age, 4.66 years). Ten dogs had no prior history of C immitis infection, and 7 dogs had chronic infection with C immitis. Having a chronic C immitis infection reduced the odds of survival, compared with no previous infection. All dogs had clinical signs of right-sided heart failure. All dogs had serum titers (range, 1:8 to 1:256) for antibodies against C immitis prior to surgery, and titers were not significantly associated with outcome. Predominant echocardiographic findings were thickened pericardium, reduced right ventricular filling, and pleural or pericardial effusion. All dogs underwent a subtotal pericardectomy and epicardial excision and had fibrosing pyogranulomatous pericarditis in biopsy specimens obtained during surgery. The perioperative mortality rate was 23.5%, and the 2-year postdischarge survival rate was 82%.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Surgical treatment via subtotal pericardectomy and epicardial excision is successful at relieving right-sided heart failure in dogs with effusive-constrictive pericarditis secondary to C immitis infection, but long-term treatment with antifungal agents may still be required. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:435–440)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association