Objective—To compare effects of orally administered tepoxalin, carprofen, and meloxicam for controlling aqueocentesis-induced anterior uveitis in dogs, as determined by measurement of aqueous prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentrations.
Animals—38 mixed-breed dogs.
Procedures—Dogs were allotted to a control group and 3 treatment groups. Dogs in the control group received no medication. Dogs in each of the treatment groups received an NSAID (tepoxalin, 10 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h; carprofen, 2.2 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h; or meloxicam, 0.2 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h) on days 0 and 1. On day 1, dogs were anesthetized and an initial aqueocentesis was performed on both eyes; 1 hour later, a second aqueocentesis was performed. Aqueous samples were frozen at −80°C until assayed for PGE2 concentrations via an enzyme immunoassay kit.
Results—Significant differences between aqueous PGE2 concentrations in the first and second samples from the control group indicated that aqueocentesis induced uveitis. Median change in PGE2 concentrations for the tepoxalin group (10 dogs [16 eyes]) was significantly lower than the median change for the control group (8 dogs [16 eyes]), carprofen group (9 dogs [16 eyes]), or meloxicam group (9 dogs [16 eyes]). Median changes in PGE2 concentrations for dogs treated with meloxicam or carprofen were lower but not significantly different from changes for control dogs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Tepoxalin was more effective than carprofen or meloxicam for controlling the production of PGE2 in dogs with experimentally induced uveitis. Tepoxalin may be an appropriate choice when treating dogs with anterior uveitis.
Objective—To determine the refractive states of eyes in domestic cats and to evaluate correlations between refractive error and age, breed, and axial globe measurements.
Animals—98 healthy ophthalmologically normal domestic cats.
Procedures—The refractive state of 196 eyes (2 eyes/cat) was determined by use of streak retinoscopy. Cats were considered ametropic when the mean refractive state was ≥ ± 0.5 diopter (D). Amplitude-mode ultrasonography was used to determine axial globe length, anterior chamber length, and vitreous chamber depth.
Results—Mean ± SD refractive state of all eyes was −0.78 ± 1.37 D. Mean refractive error of cats changed significantly as a function of age. Mean refractive state of kittens (≤ 4 months old) was −2.45 ± 1.57 D, and mean refractive state of adult cats (> 1 year old) was −0.39 ± 0.85 D. Mean axial globe length, anterior chamber length, and vitreous chamber depth were 19.75 ± 1.59 mm, 4.66 ± 0.86 mm, and 7.92 ± 0.86 mm, respectively.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Correlations were detected between age and breed and between age and refractive states of feline eyes. Mean refractive error changed significantly as a function of age, and kittens had greater negative refractive error than did adult cats. Domestic shorthair cats were significantly more likely to be myopic than were domestic mediumhair or domestic longhair cats. Domestic cats should be included in the animals in which myopia can be detected at a young age, with a likelihood of progression to emmetropia as cats mature.