To evaluate a novel prosthesis technique for extracapsular stabilization of cranial cruciate ligament (CCL)–deficient stifle joints in adult cattle.
13 cadaveric bovine stifle joint specimens.
In the first of 3 study phases, the most isometric points on the distal aspect of the femur (distal femur) and proximal aspect of the tibia (proximal tibia) were determined from measurements obtained from lateromedial radiographs of a stifle joint specimen maintained at angles of 135°, 90°, 65°, and 35°. During phase 2, 800-lb-test monofilament nylon leader line was cut into 73-cm-long segments. Each segment was secured in a loop by use of 2, 3, or 4 crimping sleeves such that there were 12 replicates for each construct. Each loop was distracted to failure at a constant rate of 1 mm/s. Mean force at failure and elongation and mode of failure were compared among the 3 constructs. During phase 3, bone tunnels were created in the distal femur and proximal tibia at the isometric points identified during phase 1 in each of 12 CCL-deficient stifle joint specimens. The 3-sleeve construct was applied to each specimen. Specimens were distracted to failure at a constant rate of 1 mm/s.
Among the 3 constructs evaluated, the 3-sleeve construct was considered optimal in terms of strength and amount of foreign material. In phase 3, all replicates failed because of suture slippage.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Use of 800-lb-test monofilament nylon leader line as a prosthesis might be a viable alternative for extracapsular stabilization of CCL-deficient stifle joints in adult cattle. Further in vivo studies are necessary.
Objective—To compare viability and biosynthetic capacities of cells isolated from equine tendon, muscle, and bone marrow grown on autogenous tendon matrix.
Sample Population—Cells from 4 young adult horses.
Procedures—Cells were isolated, expanded, and cultured on autogenous cell-free tendon matrix for 7 days. Samples were analyzed for cell viability, proteoglycan synthesis, collagen synthesis, and mRNA expression of collagen type I, collagen type III, and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP).
Results—Tendon- and muscle-derived cells required less time to reach confluence (approx 2 weeks) than did bone marrow–derived cells (approx 3 to 4 weeks); there were fewer bone marrow–derived cells at confluence than the other 2 cell types. More tendon- and muscle-derived cells were attached to matrices after 7 days than were bone marrow–derived cells. Collagen and proteoglycan synthesis by tendon- and muscle-derived cells was significantly greater than synthesis by bone marrow–derived cells. On a per-cell basis, tendon-derived cells had more collagen synthesis, although this was not significant. Collagen type I mRNA expression was similar among groups. Tendon-derived cells expressed the highest amounts of collagen type III and COMP mRNAs, although the difference for COMP was not significant.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Tendon- and muscle-derived cells yielded greater cell culture numbers in shorter time and, on a per-cell basis, had comparable biosynthetic assays to bone marrow–derived cells. More in vitro experiments with higher numbers may determine whether tendon-derived cells are a useful resource for tendon healing.