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SUMMARY

We generated monoclonal antibodies (mab) against feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) and characterized these mab by single competition enzyme immunoassays (eia), immunoblot analysis, and radioimmunoprecipitation. Four mab identified 3 distinct epitopes of the fiv p24/26 gag major core protein. One mab recognized the pl6/17 gag protein; none recognized envelope proteins. We developed an fiv p26 antigen capture eia that proved more sensitive (0.5 ng of p26/ml), less expensive, and less timeconsuming than reverse transcriptase assay. The same mab were used to develop an antibody eia specific for fiv p26. The mab and capture assays reported should prove useful in fiv diagnosis and research.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine incidence of and risk factors for major complications occurring in dogs within 30 days after cytoreductive surgery performed by a single pair of surgeons for treatment of suspected primary intracranial masses.

DESIGN Retrospective cohort study.

ANIMALS 160 client-owned dogs that underwent cytoreductive surgery for treatment of suspected primary intracranial masses between January 2009 and December 2015 at a veterinary teaching hospital.

PROCEDURES Medical records were retrospectively reviewed for complications occurring within 30 days after surgery. Data (eg, signalment, clinical signs, previous treatments, preoperative neurologic examination findings, neuroanatomical location, time from onset of clinical signs to surgery, surgical approach, and histopathologic diagnosis) were analyzed for associations with death and with development of major complications other than death.

RESULTS 21 (13.1%) dogs died (11 during hospitalization and 10 after discharge) and 30 (18.8%) developed major complications other than death during the first 30 days after surgery. Dogs with abnormal preoperative neurologic examination findings were more likely to develop complications or die. Dogs undergoing a suboccipital approach were more likely to die. The most common postoperative complications other than death were seizures (n = 18 [11.3%]), worsening of neurologic status (6 [3.8%]), and aspiration pneumonia (6 [3.8%]).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results of the present study provided valuable information on predisposing factors, odds of major complications or death, and incidences of major complications or death in dogs during the first 30 days after undergoing cytoreductive surgery for treatment of suspected primary intracranial masses. Careful case selection may help improve outcomes and minimize complications.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To assess the relationship between preoperative volume of primary intracranial gliomas in dogs as determined via MRI and survival time after surgical debulking and adjunctive immunotherapy.

DESIGN Retrospective cohort study.

ANIMALS 47 client-owned dogs enrolled in clinical trials regarding glioma treatments.

PROCEDURES Medical records of all dogs undergoing craniotomy at the University of Minnesota Veterinary Medicine Center with histologically confirmed glioma between 2008 and 2015 were retrospectively reviewed, and outcome data were collected. Preoperative T2-weighted or post–gadolinium administration T1-weighted MRI scans, performed at several referral institutions with scanners of magnet strengths ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 T, were used to measure tumor volumes as a percentage of total calvarial volume. Data were analyzed to assess the effect of each 2% fraction of tumor volume on median survival time (MST) after surgery and adjuvant treatment.

RESULTS Tumor volumes ranged from 0.5% to 12.2% of total intracranial volume. Overall MST was 185 days (range, 2 to 802 days). No association was identified between preoperative tumor volume and MST. Only 3 (6%) dogs had low-grade tumors that had relatively small volumes, measuring 1.4%, 2.1%, and 4.3% of total calvarial volume. The MST for these 3 dogs (727 days) was longer than that for high-grade tumors (174 days); however, owing to the low number of dogs with low-grade tumors, no statistical comparison was performed.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Preoperative tumor volume determined via MRI was neither associated with nor predictive of outcome following surgery and adjunctive treatment for dogs with glioma. Tumor grade was predictive of outcome, but unlike tumor volume that was measured with MRI, invasive biopsy was necessary to definitively diagnose tumor grade.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the long-term protective immunity of a cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV3) vaccine in naïve koi (Cyprinus carpio koi).

Animals—72 koi.

Procedures—Vaccinated koi (n = 36) and unvaccinated control koi (36) were challenge exposed to a wild-type CyHV3 strain (KHVp8 F98-50) 13 months after vaccination.

Results—The CyHV3 vaccine provided substantial protective immunity against challenge exposure. The proportional mortality rate was less in vaccinated koi (13/36 [36%]) than in unvaccinated koi (36/36 [100%]). For koi that died during the experiment, mean survival time was significantly greater in vaccinated than in unvaccinated fish (17 vs 10 days).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The CyHV3 vaccine provided substantial protective immunity against challenge exposure with CyHV3 13 months after vaccination. This provided evidence that koi can be vaccinated annually with the CyHV3 vaccine to significantly reduce mortality and morbidity rates associated with CyHV3 infection.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the perceived importance of specific competencies in professional veterinary practice and education among veterinarians in several countries.

Design—Survey-based prospective study.

Sample—1,137 veterinarians in 10 countries.

Procedures—Veterinarians were invited via email to participate in the study. A framework of 18 competencies grouped into 7 domains (veterinary expertise, communication, collaboration, entrepreneurship, health and welfare, scholarship, and personal development) was used. Respondents rated the importance of each competency for veterinary professional practice and for veterinary education by use of a 9-point Likert scale in an online questionnaire. Quantitative statistical analyses were performed to assess the data.

Results—All described competencies were perceived as having importance (with overall mean ratings [all countries] ≥ 6.45/9) for professional practice and education. Competencies related to veterinary expertise had the highest ratings (overall mean, 8.33/9 for both professional practice and education). For the veterinary expertise, entrepreneurship, and scholarship domains, substantial differences (determined on the basis of statistical significance and effect size) were found in importance ratings among veterinarians in different countries.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated a general consensus regarding the importance of specific types of competencies in veterinary professional practice and education. Further research into the definition of competencies essential for veterinary professionals is needed to help inform an international dialogue on the subject.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association