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We generated monoclonal antibodies (mab) against feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) and characterized these mab by single competition enzyme immunoassays (eia), immunoblot analysis, and radioimmunoprecipitation. Four mab identified 3 distinct epitopes of the fiv p24/26 gag major core protein. One mab recognized the pl6/17 gag protein; none recognized envelope proteins. We developed an fiv p26 antigen capture eia that proved more sensitive (0.5 ng of p26/ml), less expensive, and less timeconsuming than reverse transcriptase assay. The same mab were used to develop an antibody eia specific for fiv p26. The mab and capture assays reported should prove useful in fiv diagnosis and research.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To develop Toxoplasma gondii B1 gene polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for use with aqueous humor of cats, and to report PCR and antibody detection results in naturally exposed cats with and without uveitis.

Sample Population

Serum and aqueous humor samples from client-owned, healthy cats (n = 23) and client-owned cats with uveitis (n = 43).


T gondii-specific IgM and IgG were measured in serum and aqueous humor from all cats. The Goldman-Witmer coefficient for ocular antibody production was calculated for cats positive for T gondii-specific IgM or IgG in aqueous humor. Aqueous humor from all cats was assessed by the B1 gene PCR.


T gondii was detected in aqueous humor by PCR from 2 of 23 (8.7%) healthy cats and 8 of 43 (18.6%) cats with uveitis. T gondii-specific IgM in either serum or aqueous humor was detected in 5 of 8 (62.5%) cats with uveitis and T gondii in aqueous humor. All cats with uveitis and T gondii in aqueous humor had anterior segment disease. In 5 of 8 (62.5%) cats with uveitis and T gondii in aqueous humor, ocular production of T gondii antibodies was not detected. T gondii was not detected in aqueous humor from 14 of 17 (82.4%) cats with ocular production of T gondii-specific antibody.


The presence of T gondii in aqueous humor may correlate to clinical disease in some, but not all, cats.

Clinical Relevance

T gondii-specific aqueous humor antibody tests and PCR should be used together to aid in the diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis in cats. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1589–1593)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Although low plasma taurine concentrations have been associated with congestive cardiomyopathy in cats, the cause of taurine depletion in cats consuming adequate quantities of taurine is unknown. Taurine depletion and cardiovascular disease (cardiomyopathy and thromboembolism) developed unexpectedly in 3 of 6 healthy adult cats during a potassium-depletion study. Plasma taurine concentration decreased significantly (P < 0.05) and rapidly over an 8-week period (from 98 to 36 nmol/ml) in 6 cats that consumed a potassium-deficient diet (0.20% potassium, dry matter basis) that was acidified with 0.8% ammonium chloride, despite containing dietary taurine concentrations (0.12% dry matter basis) in excess of amounts currently recommended. Taurine concentrations were significantly lower in cats fed the acidified diet than in 6 cats fed a potassium-deficient diet that was not acidified (36 nmol/ml vs 75 nmol/ml) after 8 weeks. In addition, plasma taurine concentrations did not decrease over a 6-month period in 8 cats that were fed a potassium-replete diet with acidifier. Plasma taurine concentrations were lowest in 3 cats that died of cardiovascular disease in the group receiving potassium-deficient, acidified diets. These data indicated an association between taurine and potassium balance in cats and suggested that development of taurine depletion and cardiovascular disease may be linked to concurrent potassium depletion.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Flunixin meglumine has been reported to induce gastrointestinal lesions in dogs when administered at therapeutic dosages. We administered flunixin meglumine to dogs daily for 10 days to assess the effect of this drug on the gastrointestinal tract. We also evaluated the possibility of corticosteroid potentiation of gastrointestinal toxicosis by concurrent administration of prednisone to 1 group of dogs. Dogs were monitored for gastrointestinal toxicosis by means of serial endoscopic evaluation, measurement of fecal occult blood, pcv, and total solid concentration, and by physical examination. There were 3 treatment groups of 5 dogs each. Group-1 dogs were given 2.2 mg of flunixin meglumine/kg daily, in 2 divided doses im; group-2 dogs were given 4.4 mg of flunixin meglumine/kg daily, in 2 divided doses im; and group-3 dogs were given 2.2 mg of flunixin meglumine/kg daily, in 2 divided doses im plus 1.1 mg of prednisone/kg/d orally, in 2 divided doses. A fourth group of 5 dogs served as a control group.

Endoscopically visible gastric mucosal lesions developed in all treated dogs within 4 days of initiating treatment. Lesions first developed in the gastric pylorus and antrum and lesions at these sites were more severe than those observed elsewhere. Dogs treated with flunixin meglumine plus prednisone developed the earliest and most severe lesions; lesion scores in group-2 dogs were higher than those in group-1 dogs. All dogs treated had occult blood in their feces by day 5 and its presence appeared to correlate more closely with endoscopic findings than did physical examination findings or changes in values for pcv or total solids.

Deep ulcers were observed in the pylorus of most treated dogs examined at necropsy on day 10. Shallow ulcers and erosions were in the small intestine of group-2 and -3 dogs. Capillary microthrombi, associated with lesions of coagulative necrosis of superficial epithelium, were found in the colonic and small intestinal mucosa of several dogs in groups 2 and 3, and were suggestive of vascular injury.

From results of this study, it was concluded that flunixin meglumine, administered at therapeutic doses, induced early gastric mucosal injury in dogs and that concurrent administration of prednisone may have exacerbated the gastrointestinal injury induced by flunixin alone. Endoscopic evaluation and measurement of fecal occult blood appeared to be more sensitive than other methods evaluated for detection of gastrointestinal injury.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To evaluate the efficacy of administration of a single 12-mL dose of canine parvovirus (CPV)-immune plasma for treatment of CPV enteritis.

Design—Prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

Animals—14 dogs with naturally occurring CPV enteritis.

Procedures—Dogs were assigned to treatment groups on the basis of randomization tables and were administered a single IV dose of CPV-immune plasma (treatment group) or an equivalent volume of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (placebo group) within 18 hours after admission to the hospital. Treatment and outcome variables evaluated included neutrophil, monocyte, and CPV counts; number of days of hospitalization; changes in body weight; and cost of treatment.

Results—When dogs treated with CPV-immune plasma were compared with dogs treated with saline solution, there were no significant differences detected among neutrophil or monocyte counts, magnitude of viremia, weight change, number of days of hospitalization, or cost of treatment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of a single 12-mL dose of immune plasma soon after the onset of CPV enteritis in dogs was not effective in ameliorating clinical signs, reducing viremia, or hastening hematologic recovery.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association