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Objective—To describe changes in vertical ground reaction forces (GRF) over 48 months in dogs with osteoarthritis (OA) of the stifle joint induced by transection of a cranial cruciate ligament (CCL).

Animals—12 clinically normal adult dogs.

Procedure—Vertical GRF (eg, peak force and impulse) were determined prior to and 1, 2, 3, 6, 10, and 12 months after transection of the right CCL. In 7 dogs, data were also collected 24, 32, 38, 42, and 48 months after transection.

Results—Vertical peak force and impulse were significantly decreased in the right hind limb at all times after transection, compared with baseline values. From 10 through 48 months after transection, vertical GRF remained essentially static. Ground reaction forces in the unoperated (left) hind limb also changed significantly during the study. Left vertical impulse significantly increased 3 months after transection, whereas at 24, 38, 42, and 48 months after transection, left vertical peak force was significantly decreased, compared with the baseline value .Mean intradog coefficients of variation (CV) for peak vertical force and impulse ranged from 7.38 and 9.32, respectively, 1 month after transection to 1.96 and 2.76, respectively, at 42 months.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Vertical GRF in the affected hind limb equilibrated approximately 10 months after CCL transection. Prior to this, force transmission across the affected stifle joint changed significantly over time. Intradog CV were small, indicating that GRF may be an appropriate outcome measurement for evaluation of OA development induced by CCL transection in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1207–1211)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To develop a 3-D kinematic model to measure truncal motion in dogs and assess changes in truncal motion in dogs when wearing each of 2 service vests.


5 adult mixed-breed dogs.


27 reflective markers were placed on the pelvis, trunk, and scapula of each dog. Six infrared cameras were placed around a treadmill to track the location of the markers within a calibrated space. Dogs were recorded during walking and trotting on the treadmill. Local and global coordinate systems were established, and a segmental rigid-body model of the trunk was created. Dogs were then recorded while wearing a custom vest and an adjustable vest during walking and trotting on the treadmill. Range of motion of the trunk when dogs were and were not wearing vests was compared by repeated-measures ANOVA.


An anatomic coordinate system was established by use of markers located at T1, T13, and the xiphoid process. Range of motion of the trunk during a gait cycle did not differ significantly regardless of the day of the test for both walking and trotting gaits. Trunk motion of dogs when walking and trotting was significantly reduced when dogs were wearing a vest, compared with trunk motion when not wearing a vest.


A 3-D kinematic model for measuring truncal rotation was developed. Results indicated measurable differences in the gait of dogs when wearing each of the 2 service vests, compared with the gait when not wearing a vest.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Cortical bone concentrations of enrofloxacin were determined over time in dogs after sc administration of the drug. Nineteen healthy adult dogs were anesthetized and were given 2.5 or 5.0 mg of enrofloxacin/kg of body weight, sc. Serial serum and bone samples were obtained for determination of enrofloxacin concentrations at intervals until 8 hours after drug administration. Cortical bone samples were procured by surgical disarticulation of successive second phalanges. Additional cortical bone samples were taken from long bones in 4 dogs. Mean ± sd peak serum enrofloxacin concentration was 0.54 ± 0.10 μg/ml for the 2.5-mg/kg dosage and 0.97 ± 0.34 μg/ml for the 5.0-mg/kg dosage. Serum concentration was significantly higher than bone concentration for each dosage. Mean peak bone concentrations reached 29% of peak serum values: 0.15 ± 0.09 μg/g and 0.29 ± 0.09 μg/g for 2.5-mg/kg and 5.0-mg/kg dosages, respectively. Serum concentration for the 5.0-mg/kg dosage was significantly greater than that for the 2.5-mg/kg dosage for all times, whereas bone concentrations for the 5.0-mg/kg dosage were significantly higher at all times after 180 minutes. For the duration of the study, cortical bone concentrations of enrofloxacin at either dosage exceeded the minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) for the Enterobacteriaceae, but reliably exceeded the mic for Staphylococcus sp only at the 5.0-mg/kg dosage. At no time did cortical bone concentrations of enrofloxacin exceed the mic for Pseudomonas aeruginosa at either dosage.

To validate extrapolation of data from the second phalanx to long bones and from anesthetized to awake dogs, 16 healthy dogs being euthanatized in unrelated studies were given 2.5 or 5.0 mg of enrofloxacin/kg, sc. These dogs were not anesthetized but were euthanatized at 60, 120, or 240 minutes after drug administration, and multiple cortical bone samples were taken. Antibiotic concentrations in the second phalanx were not significantly different from those in long bones. Comparison of enrofloxacin concentrations in cortical bone of awake and anesthetized dogs suggested no differences between groups. We concluded that general anesthesia and use of the antibiotic concentrations in the second phalanx as representative of those in long bones did not affect results of this study.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To evaluate in vivo activity of carprofen, deracoxib, and etodolac on prostanoid production in several target tissues in dogs with chronic osteoarthritis.

Animals—8 dogs with chronic unilateral osteoarthritis of the stifle joint.

Procedure—Each dog received carprofen, deracoxib, or etodolac for 10 days with a 30- to 60-day washout period between treatments. On days 0, 3, and 10, prostaglandin (PG) E2 concentrations were measured in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated blood, synovial fluid, and gastric mucosal biopsy specimens; PGE1 concentrations were measured in gastric mucosal biopsy specimens; and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) was evaluated in blood.

Results—Carprofen and deracoxib significantly suppressed PGE2 concentrations in blood at days 3 and 10, compared with baseline, whereas etodolac did not. None of the drugs significantly suppressed TXB2 concentrations in blood or gastric PGE1 synthesis at any time point. All 3 drugs significantly decreased gastric synthesis of PGE2 at day 3 but not day 10 of each treatment period. All 3 drugs decreased synovial fluid PGE2 concentrations in the affected and unaffected stifle joints at days 3 and 10.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicate that carprofen and deracoxib act in vivo on target tissues as COX-1–sparing drugs by sparing gastric PGE1 and PGE2 synthesis and production of TXB2 by platelets. Etodolac also appears to be COX-1 sparing but may have variable effects on COX-2 depending on the tissue. In gastric mucosa and synovial fluid, there were no significant differences in PG production between compounds at recommended concentrations. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:812–817)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To evaluate cyclooxygenase (COX) selectivity of several nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) in canine blood in vitro.

Animals—11 healthy adult male hound crosses.

Procedure—9 NSAID were studied at 5 concentrations. Thromboxane B2 (TxB2) was assayed as a measure of COX-1 activity in clotted blood. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was assayed as a measure of COX-2 activity in heparinized, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated blood. All assays were competitive ELISA tests. Cyclooxygenase selectivity was expressed as a ratio of the concentration of an NSAID that inhibited 50% of the activity (IC50) of COX-1 to the IC50 of COX-2. A separate ratio of the concentration that inhibited 80% of COX activity (IC80) was also determined. A ratio of < 1.0 indicated selectivity for COX-1, whereas a ratio of > 1.0 indicated COX-2 selectivity.

Results—Ketoprofen, aspirin, and etodolac were COX-1 selective. Piroxicam, meloxicam, and carprofen had COX-2 selectivity. The IC50 and IC80 values were similar for most NSAID.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—This methodology provides repeatable data from individual dogs and is comparable to results of previous in vitro and ex vivo models. Findings are also consistent with those of canine studies performed in vivo, suggesting that this is a viable in vitro assessment of the COX selectivity of NSAID in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:91–94)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To evaluate a 3-D kinematic model of the hind limb developed by use of a joint coordinate system in dogs.

Animals—6 clinically normal adult mixed-breed dogs.

Procedures—17 retroreflective markers were affixed to the skin on the right hind limb of each dog. Eight infrared cameras were arranged around a gait platform to record marker locations as dogs were recorded moving through the calibrated space 5 times during a walk and trot at velocities of 0.9 to 1.2 m/s and 1.7 to 2.1 m/s, respectively. Local and global coordinate systems were established, and a segmental rigid-body model of the canine hind limb was produced. Dynamic 3-D joint kinematic measurements were collected for the hip, stifle, and tarsal joints.

Results—Sagittal (flexion-extension), transverse (internal-external rotation), and frontal (abduction-adduction) plane kinematic measurements were acquired during each trial for the hip, stifle, and tarsal joints.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The joint coordinate system allowed acquisition of 3-D kinematic measurements of the hip, stifle, and tarsal joints of the canine hind limb. Methods were described to model 3-D joint motion of the canine hind limb. (Am J Vet Res 2010;71:1118-1122)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To compare results of single-point kinetic gait analysis (peak and impulse) with those of complete gait waveform analysis.

Animals—15 healthy adult mixed-breed dogs.

Procedures—Dogs were trotted across 2 force platforms (velocity, 1.7 to 2.1 m/s; acceleration and deceleration, 0.5 m/s2). Five valid trials were recorded on each testing day. Testing days 1 and 2 were separated by 1 week, as were days 3 and 4. Testing days 1 and 2 were separated from days 3 and 4 by 1 year. A paired t test was performed to evaluate interday and interyear differences for vertical and craniocaudal propulsion peak forces and impulses. Vertical and craniocaudal propulsion force-time waveforms were similarly compared by use of generalized indicator function analysis (GIFA).

Results—Vertical and craniocaudal propulsion peak forces and impulses did not differ significantly between days 1 and 2 or days 3 and 4. When data were compared between years, no significant differences were found for vertical impulse and craniocaudal propulsion peak force and impulse, but differences were detected for vertical peak force. The GIFA of the vertical and craniocaudal force-time waveforms identified significant interday and interyear differences. These results were identical for both hind limbs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Findings indicated that when comparing kinetic data overtime, additional insight may be gleaned from GIFA of the complete waveform, particularly when subtle waveform differences are present.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research