Objective—To determine whether vaccine virus can be detected by use of reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR assays for pooled and individual skin samples obtained from cattle after vaccination with a commercially available modified-live bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) vaccine.
Animals—12 BVDV-seropositive steer calves and 7 BVDV-seronegative (antibody titer < 1:4) heifers; all cattle were free of persistent infection with BVDV.
Procedures—2 experiments were conducted. Cattle were vaccinated on day 0 with a commercially available modified-live BVDV vaccine. Skin samples were collected on days 0, 3 to 14, 16, and 18 for virus detection by use of RT-PCR assay on individual and pooled samples. In addition, blood samples and nasal swab specimens were collected for virus isolation.
Results—All cattle, regardless of serologic status, had negative results for BVDV as determined by use of RT-PCR assay of individual and pooled skin samples. Virus was detected via virus isolation in serum or the buffy coat in 5 of 7 heifers that were seronegative when vaccinated.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These findings indicated that it would be unlikely to detect BVDV vaccine virus in skin by use of RT-PCR assay of individual or pooled skin samples obtained from cattle after vaccination with a commercially available modified-live BVDV vaccine. Veterinarians and producers should be confident that positive test results for BVDV on skin samples would not likely be caused by the vaccination virus after administration of a modified-live virus vaccine.
Objective—To evaluate the efficacy of a commercially available killed bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) vaccine to protect against fetal infection in pregnant cattle continually exposed to cattle persistently infected with the BVDV.
Animals—60 crossbred beef heifers and 4 cows persistently infected with BVDV.
Procedures—Beef heifers were allocated to 2 groups. One group was vaccinated twice (21-day interval between the initial and booster vaccinations) with a commercially available vaccine against BVDV, and the other group served as nonvaccinated control cattle. Estrus was induced, and the heifers were bred. Pregnancy was confirmed by transrectal palpation. Four cows persistently infected with BVDV were housed with 30 pregnant heifers (15 each from the vaccinated and nonvaccinated groups) from day 52 to 150 of gestation. Fetuses were then harvested by cesarean section and tested for evidence of BVDV infection.
Results—1 control heifer aborted after introduction of the persistently infected cows. Bovine viral diarrhea virus was isolated from 14 of 14 fetuses obtained via cesarean section from control heifers but from only 4 of 15 fetuses obtained via cesarean section from vaccinated heifers; these proportions differed significantly.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A commercially available multivalent vaccine containing an inactivated BVDV fraction significantly reduced the risk of fetal infection with BVDV in heifers continually exposed to cattle persistently infected with BVDV. However, not all vaccinated cattle were protected, which emphasizes the need for biosecurity measures and elimination of cattle persistently infected with BVDV in addition to vaccination within a herd.