Objective—To characterize the antigen-specific
immune response to dietary proteins in cats and evaluate
whether there was a qualitative or quantitative
difference between the responses to dietary proteins
when those proteins were fed unprocessed or as part
of a canned diet.
Animals—14 healthy domestic shorthair cats.
Procedure—Cats were fed 2 dietary proteins (soy
and casein) either as unprocessed aqueous suspensions
or as part of canned diets for 21 days. Serum
IgG and IgA and salivary IgA were assayed by indirect
ELISA, and antigen-specific proliferation of mesenteric
lymph node-derived lymphocytes was determined.
Results—Robust serum IgG and IgA responses to
dietary proteins were elicited, irrespective of the form
in which they were fed. Salivary IgA responses to
unprocessed proteins were not detected. However, a
significant salivary IgA response to the protein isolated
from the canned casein diet was observed in cats
fed canned casein but not in those fed unprocessed
casein. Lymphocyte proliferation to the antigens was
slight, and there were no significant differences
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated
that cats develop robust serum IgG and IgA
responses to dietary proteins when fed as either
aqueous suspensions or as part of canned diets. For
certain proteins, there may be an increase and a qualitative
difference in the immunogenicity of canned
diets, compared with unprocessed proteins. Canned
diets may not be ideal for management of cats with
enteritis. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1427–1433)
OBJECTIVE To assess feasibility of flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) in awake dogs, determine whether specific variables associated with the oropharyngeal phase of swallowing can be recognized, and evaluate the safety and tolerability of FEES.
ANIMALS 6 healthy client-owned large- and giant-breed adult dogs.
PROCEDURES A topical anesthetic was applied to the nasal passage of each dog, and a fiberoptic endoscope was passed transnasally until the tip of the scope was positioned in the oropharynx. All dogs voluntarily drank colored water followed by consumption of a commercial canned diet and then a kibble diet mixed with food color. During each swallow, laryngeal and pharyngeal anatomic structures were evaluated and depth of bolus flow prior to the pharyngeal phase of swallowing was assessed. Evidence of bolus retention in the vallecula or pyriform sinuses and laryngeal penetration of the bolus were recorded.
RESULTS FEES was completed without major adverse events and was tolerated well by all 6 dogs. Mild, self-limiting epistaxis was noted for 2 dogs. The nasopharynx, oropharynx, and hypopharynx were observed in all dogs; movement of food boluses through the esophagus was observed in 2 dogs, and food boluses in the stomach were visible in 1 dog. Pharyngeal and laryngeal function was considered physiologically normal in all dogs.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE FEES appeared to be a feasible diagnostic tool for use in large- and giant-breed dogs. Studies are warranted in dogs with oropharyngeal dysphagia to determine whether FEES can be tolerated and whether it can augment videofluoroscopy findings.
Case Description—2 captive sun bears (Helarctos malayanus) were evaluated because of acute onset of vomiting, mucoid diarrhea, lethargy, and anorexia 1 week after eating live trout from a northern California reservoir.
Clinical Findings—In 1 of the bears, a CBC and serum biochemical analyses revealed mild anemia, mild eosinophilia, moderate lymphopenia, moderate hypoalbuminemia, and high serum G-glutamyltransferase activity. Ultrasonographic examination of the same bear revealed ascites and mesenteric lymphadenopathy. Histologic examination of gastrointestinal tract biopsy specimens revealed moderate to severe lymphoplasmacytic and eosinophilic gastritis, enteritis, and colitis. Ova of Nanophyetus salmincola, the trematode vector of Neorickettsia helminthoeca (a rickettsial organism that causes salmon poisoning disease), were detected in fecal samples from both bears.
Treatment and Outcome—The bears were treated with oxytetracycline, doxycycline, praziquantel, and famotidine. Within 1 week after initiation of treatment, the appetite and fecal consistency of each bear were considered normal. Fecal ova shedding began 4 days after onset of clinical signs and ceased 9 days later.
Clinical Relevance—Salmon poisoning disease can be rapidly fatal in untreated animals, but if diagnosed early and treated appropriately, full recovery can be achieved. Domestic dogs and captive exotic bears are highly susceptible to clinical disease after ingestion of trematode-infected fish. Salmon poisoning disease may develop outside the geographic range in which the causative organism is endemic as a result of the transplantation of infected fish for sport fishing; veterinarians practicing in areas where infected fish may be transplanted should be aware of appropriate diagnostic and treatment protocols.
Objective—To evaluate a modified Ziehl-Neelsen
acid-fast staining technique (mZN), a direct immunofluorescence
detection procedure (DIF), and 3 commercial
enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) for detection of
Cryptosporidium oocysts in fecal specimens from kittens.
Sample Population—416 fecal specimens collected
from 104 randomly selected domestic shorthair kittens
(8 to 16 weeks of age) that were naturally
exposed to Cryptosporidium spp.
Procedure—Fresh fecal specimens were collected
once daily for 4 consecutive days and processed
immediately. Sensitivities of mZN, DIF, and 3 commercial
EIAs (EIA-1, EIA-2, and EIA-3) were estimated
Results—EIA-2 had the highest sensitivity on day 1
(89%), followed by EIA-1 (80%), and mZN (72%). EIA-
3 had the lowest sensitivity on day 1 (15%). EIA-2, EIA-
1, and mZN had similar sensitivities after 2 consecutive
fecal examinations (approx 90%). Determination of
specificities was compromised by the small number of
cats that had negative results for all tests (n = 3).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that EIA-2 and EIA-1 had the highest sensitivities
when only a single fecal specimen was examined;
however, mZN and EIA-1 had similar sensitivities
when 2 consecutive fecal specimens were examined.
The higher costs of EIA-2 and EIA-1 may be offset by
the tests’ high sensitivity, simplicity of use, and ease
of interpretation and by savings in technician time.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:1549–1553)
Objective—To determine frequency and types of
complications, prognostic factors, and primary diseases
affecting clinical outcome associated with
administration of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) in
Animals—75 cats that received TPN for ≥ 12 hours.
Procedure—Medical records were reviewed, and
information was obtained on signalment, history,
problems at initial evaluation, physical examination
findings, weight and changes in weight while receiving
TPN, duration in the hospital before initiation of
TPN, the type of TPN catheter used, duration of TPN
administration, and final diagnosis. Laboratory results
obtained immediately prior to TPN and at 24 and 96
hours following initiation of TPN administration were
Results—Reports of weight loss at initial evaluation,
hyperglycemia at 24 hours, or diagnosis of chronic
renal failure were significantly associated with
increased mortality rate. Greater serum albumin concentrations
prior to and at 96 hours following TPN
administration were significantly associated with
decreased mortality rate. Mechanical and septic complications
were infrequent and not associated with
increased mortality rate. Most cats had multiple diseases.
The overall mortality rate was 52%; among 75
cats, 36 recovered, 23 were euthanatized, and 16 died
as a result of their primary illness or complications
associated with their illness.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated
high mortality rate in cats maintained on TPN that had
multiple concurrent diseases associated with a poor
prognosis. Indicators of poor prognosis included a history
of weight loss, hyperglycemia at 24 hours following
TPN administration, hypoalbuminemia, and chronic renal
failure. (J Am Vet med Assoc 2004;225:242–250)
4 cats (6 to 9 months old) were evaluated because of clinical signs consistent with a portosystemic shunt (PSS).
Among the 4 cats, 3 had neurologic abnormalities including ataxia, head pressing, disorientation, and obtundation. One cat was evaluated because of urethral obstruction; a retrieved urethral stone was determined to have urate composition. Clinicopathologic findings (hypoproteinemia, low BUN concentration, and high serum bile acids concentration) were consistent with a PSS in all cats. A diagnosis of intrahepatic PSS (IHPSS) was made for all cats on the basis of ultrasonographic and CT findings.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME
All cats underwent percutaneous transvenous coil embolization (PTCE). No major intraprocedural complications were encountered, and all cats were discharged from the hospital. For the 3 cats that were presented with neurologic signs, an evaluation performed at 12, 14, or 48 months after the procedure revealed resolution of the neurologic signs, and owners reported that the behavior of each cat appeared normal. One cat that initially had neurologic and gastrointestinal signs had lower urinary tract signs after PTCE and developed an acquired extrahepatic PSS.
Although IHPSSs in cats are uncommon, the outcomes of PTCE for the 4 cats of the present report suggested that this treatment may benefit cats with an IHPSS. No short-term complications were encountered, and all cats had improvement in clinical signs following PTCE, although an acquired extrahepatic PSS was later identified in 1 cat. Further investigation of the use of endovascular techniques for the treatment of IHPSSs in cats and other species is warranted.
OBJECTIVE To validate the use of high-resolution manometry (HRM) in awake, healthy dogs and compare the effects of bolus type (liquid vs solid) and drug treatment (saline [0.9% NaCl] solution [SS] vs cisapride) on esophageal pressure profiles.
ANIMALS 8 healthy dogs.
PROCEDURES In a crossover study, each dog received SS (10 mL) IV, and HRM was performed during oral administration of 10 boluses (5 mL each) of water or 10 boluses (5 g each) of canned food. Cisapride (1 mg/kg in 60 mL of SS) was subsequently administered IV to 7 dogs; HRM and bolus administration procedures were repeated. Two to 4 weeks later, HRM was repeated following administration of SS and water and food boluses in 4 dogs. Pressure profile data were obtained for all swallows, and 11 outcome variables were statistically analyzed.
RESULTS After SS administration, predicted means for the esophageal contractile integral were 850.4 cm/mm Hg/s for food boluses and 660.3 cm/mm Hg/s for water boluses. Predicted means for esophageal contraction front velocity were 6.2 cm/s for water boluses and 5.6 cm/s for food boluses after SS administration. Predicted means for residual LES pressure were significantly higher following cisapride administration.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that HRM was feasible and repeatable in awake healthy dogs of various breeds and sizes. Stronger esophageal contractions and faster esophageal contraction velocity occurred during solid bolus and liquid bolus swallows, respectively. Lower esophageal sphincter pressure increased significantly following cisapride administration. Esophageal contractions and bolus transit latency should be further evaluated by HRM in clinically dysphagic dogs.
Objective—To characterize a genetic component to
cricopharyngeal dysfunction (CD) in Golden Retrievers.
Procedure—The CD phenotype was determined by
videofluoroscopy, and dogs were classified as affected
if the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) did not open,
if there were morphologic abnormalities of the UES, or
if opening of the UES was delayed for ≥ 6 videofluoroscopic
frames (0.2 seconds) after closure of the
epiglottis. All survey radiographic and videofluoroscopic
studies were reviewed by the same radiologist.
Results—Of the 117 dogs (47 males and 70 females)
with a CD phenotype determined via videofluoroscopy,
21 dogs (18.0%) had abnormalities of the
UES (affected). Of these 21 dogs, 9 were males
(19.1% of all males) and 12 were females (17.1% of all
females). The heritability of CD in a threshold model
was estimated as 0.61, which established that CD
could be passed from parent to offspring. Results of
complex segregation analysis suggested that a single
recessive allele of large effect contributed to the
expression of this disease in Golden Retrievers.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The determination
that CD is inherited in Golden Retrievers is an
important step in providing information for veterinarians
attending dogs with this disorder. Breeders also
require this information to make informed breeding
decisions. ( Am J Vet Res 2004;65:344–349)
Objective—To determine associations among infectious
pathogens and diarrheal disease in dogs in an
animal shelter and demonstrate the use of geographic
information systems (GISs) for tracking spatial distributions
of diarrheal disease within shelters.
Sample Population—Feces from 120 dogs.
Procedure—Fresh fecal specimens were screened
for bacteria and bacterial toxins via bacteriologic culture
and ELISA, parvovirus via ELISA, canine coronavirus
via nested polymerase chain reaction assay,
protozoal cysts and oocysts via a direct fluorescent
antibody technique, and parasite ova and larvae via
microscopic examination of direct wet mounts and
zinc sulfate centrifugation flotation.
Results—Salmonella enterica and Brachyspira spp
were not common, whereas other pathogens such as
canine coronavirus and Helicobacter spp were common
among the dogs that were surveyed. Only
intestinal parasites and Campylobacter jejuni infection
were significant risk factors for diarrhea by univariate
odds ratio analysis. Giardia lamblia was significantly
underestimated by fecal flotation, compared with a
direct fluorescent antibody technique. Spatial analysis
of case specimens by use of GIS indicated that diarrhea
was widespread throughout the entire shelter,
and spatial statistical analysis revealed no evidence of
spatial clustering of case specimens.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—This study
provided an epidemiologic overview of diarrhea and
interacting diarrhea-associated pathogens in a densely
housed, highly predisposed shelter population of
dogs. Several of the approaches used in this study,
such as use of a spatial representation of case specimens
and considering multiple etiologies simultaneously,
were novel and illustrate an integrated
approach to epidemiologic investigations in shelter
populations. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1018–1024)