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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate owner adherence to recommendations for follow-up examination of dogs and cats following orthopedic procedures and identify factors associated with adherence versus nonadherence.

SAMPLE

Medical records of 485 dogs and cats that underwent orthopedic surgery.

PROCEDURES

Cases were categorized as urgent or elective. Information obtained from the medical records consisted of species, age, body weight, proximity to the hospital, procedure cost, recommendations for coaptation, use of financial aid, and number of owners. Cases were considered adherent to follow-up recommendations if, at the latest visit or communication, no further visits were recommended. Cases were considered nonadherent if owners did not return for recommended follow-up visits.

RESULTS

Overall adherence to follow-up recommendations was 65.8% (319/485). Elective cases were 1.6 times as likely to be adherent to follow-up recommendations as were urgent cases, dog cases were 2.4 times as likely to be adherent as were cat cases, and cases with multiple owners listed were 2.1 times as likely to be adherent as were cases with 1 owner listed. Distance from the hospital had a statistically significant association with adherence, but the effect was not clinically important. Age, weight, coaptation, procedure cost, and use of financial aid were not significantly associated with adherence.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The percentage of dogs and cats lost to follow-up following orthopedic surgery at an academic veterinary teaching hospital was substantial (166/485 [34.2%]). Efforts to improve follow-up adherence are especially indicated for animals undergoing urgent procedures, animals with single owners, and cats.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine short- and long-term outcomes and complications of dogs undergoing surgical correction of grade IV medial patellar luxation (MPL).

DESIGN Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS 24 dogs (29 stifle joints) that underwent surgical correction of grade IV MPL between March 2008 and April 2014.

PROCEDURES Medical records of all dogs were reviewed. When available, long-term follow-up information was obtained for each dog via the orthopedic surgeon (results of orthopedic examination and radiographic interpretation) and the dog's owner (responses to a questionnaire regarding postsurgical outcomes). Types of postsurgical complications and intervals to follow-up data collection were recorded. Recurrence of MPL was recorded separately. Successful outcome was defined as one without catastrophic complication, with owner-reported full or acceptable return to function and a surgeon- and owner-assigned pain or lameness score < 3.

RESULTS 24% (7/29) of stifle joints had major complications, and 21% (6) of joints required surgical revision. Grade II to IV recurrence of MPL was identified in 21% (6) of stifle joints. One dog had a catastrophic complication requiring limb amputation. For all other dogs, owner-reported return to function was full or acceptable. Surgeon-assigned pain and lameness scores for all dogs at the final follow-up evaluation were < 2/5 (0 = pain or lameness free). Surgical correction of grade IV MPL had an overall success rate of 93% (27/29).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Surgical correction of grade IV MPL in dogs had a favorable overall success rate; however, owners should be counseled regarding the high rate of complications associated with surgery.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—A 10-year-old spayed female Jack Russell Terrier and a 7-year-old neutered male mixed-breed dog were evaluated because of acute, progressive, unilateral forelimb lameness associated with signs of pain and turgid antebrachial swelling.

Clinical Findings—For either dog, there were no salient pathological or diagnostic imaging abnormalities. A diagnosis of compartment syndrome was confirmed on the basis of high caudal antebrachial compartmental pressure in the affected forelimb.

Treatment and Outcome—Both dogs underwent surgical exploration of the affected forelimb. In each case, an intramuscular tumor (mast cell tumor in the Jack Russell Terrier and suspected sarcoma in the mixed-breed dog) was detected and presumed to be the cause of the high compartmental pressure. At 6 months following tumor excision, the dog with the mast cell tumor did not have any clinical signs of disease. The dog with a suspected sarcoma underwent tumor excision and forelimb amputation at the proximal portion of the humerus followed by chemotherapy; the dog was euthanized approximately 1 year following treatment because of pulmonary metastasis.

Clinical Relevance—Compartment syndrome is a serious but rarely reported condition in dogs and is typically ascribed to intracompartmental hemorrhage. These 2 cases illustrate the potential for expansile intramuscular antebrachial tumors to cause compartment syndrome in dogs.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the influence of stifle joint flexion angle, cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) integrity, tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO), and cranial tibial subluxation on the distance between the location of the origin and insertion of the CrCL (CrCLd) in dogs.

Samples—4 pairs of pelvic limbs from adult dog cadavers weighing 23 to 34 kg.

Procedures—Mediolateral projection radiographs of each stifle joint were obtained with the joint flexed at 90°, 105°, 120°, 135°, and 150°. Radiopaque markers were then placed at the sites of origin and insertion of the CrCL. Afterward, radiography was repeated in the same manner, before and after CrCL transection, with and without TPLO. Following CrCL transection, radiographs were obtained before and after inducing overt cranial tibial subluxation. Interobserver variation in measuring the CrCLd without fiduciary markers was assessed. The effect of CrCL integrity, cranial tibial subluxation, flexion angle, and TPLO on CrCLd was also determined.

Results—Interobserver agreement was strong, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.859. The CrCLd was significantly shorter (< 1 mm) at 90° of flexion; otherwise, flexion angle had no effect on CrCLd. Cranial tibial subluxation caused a 25% to 40% increase in CrCLd. No effect of TPLO on CrCLd was found, regardless of CrCL integrity, forced stifle joint subluxation, or flexion angle.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Overt cranial tibial subluxation in CrCL-deficient stifle joints can be detected on mediolateral projection radiographs by comparing CrCLd on neutral and stressed joint radiographs at joint angles between 105° and 150°, regardless of whether a TPLO has been performed.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the efficacy and toxic effects of epirubicin for the adjuvant treatment of dogs with splenic hemangiosarcoma and identify prognostic factors.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—59 client-owned dogs that underwent splenectomy for splenic hemangiosarcoma treated with or without epirubicin.

Procedures—Medical records were examined for signalment, clinical signs, diagnostic and surgical findings, and postoperative outcome. For dogs treated with epirubicin, dose numbers, intervals, and reductions and type and severity of toxic effects were recorded. Dogs were allotted to 2 groups: splenectomy alone and splenectomy with adjuvant epirubicin treatment.

Results—18 dogs received epirubicin (30 mg/m2) every 3 weeks for up to 4 to 6 treatments. Forty-one dogs were treated with splenectomy alone. The overall median survival time was significantly longer in dogs treated with splenectomy and epirubicin (144 days), compared with splenectomy alone (86 days). Median survival time for dogs with stage I disease (345 days) was significantly longer than for dogs with either stage II (93 days) or III disease (68 days). Seven of 18 dogs treated with epirubicin were hospitalized for signs of adverse gastrointestinal effects. Inappetence, long duration of clinical signs, thrombocytopenia, neutrophilia, and high mitotic rate were negative prognostic factors.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Epirubicin may be as efficacious as adjuvant doxorubicin-based protocols, but may result in a higher incidence of adverse gastrointestinal effects. Epirubicin should be considered as an alternative to doxorubicin in dogs with preexisting cardiac disease, as clinical epirubicin cardiotoxicity was not diagnosed in treated dogs.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION

3 adult Basset Hounds were referred for evaluation of chronic, unilateral, pelvic limb lameness with no history of trauma.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

On examination, all dogs had mild lameness of the affected limb; signs of pain were evident during manipulation of the stifle joint in the affected limb, along with effusion of that joint. No stifle joint instability was palpable. Radiographs were available for review for 2 of the 3 dogs. Effusion was confirmed radiographically, but severity of degenerative joint disease varied. Central intercondylar notch width ratios for the 2 dogs were 0.16 and 0.17, and tibial plateau angles were −10° and 15°; relative tibial tuberosity width was 1.1 for both dogs. Exploratory arthroscopy revealed moderate degeneration of the caudal cruciate ligament in all 3 dogs; the cranial cruciate ligaments were grossly normal.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

Corrective osteotomy to increase the tibial plateau angle was performed in 1 dog, and the lameness resolved by 2 months after surgery. The 2 other dogs were managed without additional surgery. One dog was persistently lame. The other dog reportedly had normal limb function 2.5 years after undergoing exploratory arthroscopy.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Morphological characteristics of the tibia in Basset Hounds may predispose to abnormal stresses on the caudal cruciate ligament. Isolated degeneration of the caudal cruciate ligament should be considered as a differential diagnosis for Basset Hounds with lameness originating from the stifle joint. Without direct inspection of the joint, caudal cruciate ligament disease could be confused for cranial cruciate ligament injury.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare initial leak pressure (ILP) between cadaveric canine and synthetic small intestinal segments that did and did not undergo enterotomy.

SAMPLE

Eight 8-cm grossly normal jejunal segments from 1 canine cadaver and eight 8-cm synthetic small intestinal segments.

PROCEDURES

Intestinal segments were randomly assigned to undergo enterotomy (6 cadaveric and 6 synthetic segments) or serve as untreated controls (2 cadaveric and 2 synthetic segments). For segments designated for enterotomy, a 2-cm full-thickness incision was created along the antimesenteric border. The incision was closed in a single layer with 4-0 suture in a simple continuous pattern. Leak testing was performed with intestinal segments occluded at both ends and infused with dilute dye solution (999 mL/h) until the solution was observed leaking from the suture line or serosal tearing occurred. Intraluminal pressure was continuously monitored. The ILP at construct failure was compared between cadaveric and synthetic control segments and between cadaveric and synthetic enterotomy segments.

RESULTS

Mean ± SD ILP did not differ significantly between cadaveric (345.11 ± 2.15 mm Hg) and synthetic (329.04 ± 24.69 mm Hg) control segments but was significantly greater for cadaveric enterotomy segments (60.77 ± 15.81 mm Hg), compared with synthetic enterotomy segments (15.03 ± 6.41 mm Hg).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Leak testing should not be used to assess the accuracy or security of enterotomy suture lines in synthetic intestinal tissue. Synthetic intestinal tissue is best used for students to gain confidence and proficiency in performing enterotomies before performing the procedure on live animals.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To validate use of stress MRI for evaluation of stifle joints of dogs with an intact or deficient cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL).

Sample—10 cadaveric stifle joints from 10 dogs.

Procedures—A custom-made limb-holding device and a pulley system linked to a paw plate were used to apply axial compression across the stifle joint and induce cranial tibial translation with the joint in various degrees of flexion. By use of sagittal proton density–weighted MRI, CrCL-intact and deficient stifle joints were evaluated under conditions of loading stress simulating the tibial compression test or the cranial drawer test. Medial and lateral femorotibial subluxation following CrCL transection measured under a simulated tibial compression test and a cranial drawer test were compared.

Results—By use of tibial compression test MRI, the mean ± SD cranial tibial translations in the medial and lateral compartments were 9.6 ± 3.7 mm and 10 ± 4.1 mm, respectively. By use of cranial drawer test MRI, the mean ± SD cranial tibial translations in the medial and lateral compartments were 8.3 ± 3.3 mm and 9.5 ± 3.5 mm, respectively. No significant difference in femorotibial subluxation was found between stress MRI techniques. Femorotibial subluxation elicited by use of the cranial drawer test was greater in the lateral than in the medial compartment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Both stress techniques induced stifle joint subluxation following CrCL transection that was measurable by use of MRI, suggesting that both methods may be further evaluated for clinical use.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research