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To determine whether administration of amphotericin B in a fat emulsion solution would reduce the nephrotoxicity of amphotericin B, compared with that associated with administration of amphotericin B in 5% dextrose solution.


Prospective controlled study.


2 groups of 5 adult male Beagles.


Dogs received amphotericin B (1 mg/kg of body weight/d) prepared in 5% dextrose solution or in 20% fat emulsion daily for 6 doses. Serum biochemical analysis, CBC, urinalysis, and endogenous creatinine clearance were performed on days 0 and 8, 2 days after the last dose of amphotericin B. On day 8, dogs were euthanatized and gross necropsies were performed. Unbiased semiquantitative scoring of the kidneys for the degree of injury was performed by use of light microscopy.


There were no significant differences in serum creatinine, urea nitrogen, or potassium concentrations, urine specific gravity, endogenous creatinine clearance, or degree of tubulo-interstitial injury between the 2 groups.


In this model, the degree of nephrotoxicity of amphotericin B was not significantly different for dogs receiving the drug in a fat emulsion versus its administration in 5% dextrose. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1054–1058)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To evaluate the prevalence of suicide risk factors, attitudes toward mental illness, and practice-related stressors among US veterinarians.

Design—Cross-sectional survey.

Sample—11,627 US veterinarians.

Procedures—Between July 1 and October 20, 2014, a Web-based questionnaire was made available through the Veterinary Information Network (VIN), VIN News Service, JAVMA News, and email messages to US veterinarians sent by a veterinary medical association, agriculture or livestock department, or health department of each state (except Maine) and Puerto Rico.

Results—Of 11,627 respondents, 3,628 (31%) were male. Modal age category was 30 to 39 years, and modal range for years practicing veterinary medicine was 10 to 19 years. There were 7,460 (64%) respondents who primarily practiced small animal medicine, and 4,224 (36%) who were practice owners. There were 1,077 (9%) respondents with current serious psychological distress. Since leaving veterinary school, 3,655 (31%) respondents experienced depressive episodes, 1,952 (17%) experienced suicidal ideation, and 157 (1%) attempted suicide. Currently, 2,228 (19%) respondents were receiving treatment for a mental health condition. Only 3,250 of 10,220 (32%) respondents somewhat or strongly agreed that people are sympathetic toward persons with mental illness. The most commonly reported practice-related stressor was demands of practice.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In this survey, approximately 1 in 11 veterinarians had serious psychological distress and 1 in 6 experienced suicidal ideation since leaving veterinary school. Implementing measures to help veterinarians cope with practice-related stressors and reducing barriers veterinarians face in seeking mental health treatment might reduce the risk for suicide among veterinarians.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association