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Objective—To determine pharmacokinetics after oral administration of a single dose of terbinafine hydrochloride to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

Animals—6 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots.

Procedures—A single dose of terbinafine hydrochloride (60 mg/kg) was administered orally to each bird, which was followed immediately by administration of a commercially available gavage feeding formula. Blood samples were collected at the time of drug administration (time 0) and 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours after drug administration. Plasma concentrations of terbinafine were determined via high-performance liquid chromatography.

Results—Data from 1 bird were discarded because of a possible error in the dose of drug administered. After oral administration of terbinafine, the maximum concentration for the remaining 5 fed birds ranged from 109 to 671 ng/mL, half-life ranged from 6 to 13.5 hours, and time to the maximum concentration ranged from 2 to 8 hours. No adverse effects were observed.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Analysis of the results indicated that oral administration of terbinafine at a dose of 60 mg/kg to Amazon parrots did not result in adverse effects and may be potentially of use in the treatment of aspergillosis. Additional studies are needed to determine treatment efficacy and safety.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To compare pharmacokinetics after a single IM or SC injection of ceftiofur crystalline-free acid (CCFA) to bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

Animals—8 adult male bearded dragons.

Procedures—In a preliminary experiment, doses of 15 and 30 mg/kg, SC, were compared in 2 animals, and 30 mg/kg resulted in a more desirable pharmacokinetic profile. Then, in a randomized, complete crossover experimental design, each bearded dragon (n = 6) received a single dose of 30 mg of CCFA/kg IM or SC; the experiment was repeated after a 28-day washout period with the other route of administration. Blood samples were collected at 10 time points for 288 hours after injection. Plasma concentrations of ceftiofur and desfuroylceftiofur metabolites were measured via reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Data were analyzed with a noncompartmental model.

Results—No adverse effects were observed. Plasma concentrations greater than a target minimum inhibitory concentration of 1 μg/mL were achieved by 4 hours after administration by both routes. Mean plasma concentrations remained > 1 μg/mL for > 288 hours for both routes of administration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A single dose of CCFA (30 mg/kg) administered IM or SC to bearded dragons yielded plasma concentrations of ceftiofur and its metabolites > 1 μg/mL for > 288 hours. The SC route would be preferred because of less variability in plasma concentrations and greater ease of administration than the IM route. Future studies should include efficacy data as well as evaluation of the administration of multiple doses.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To determine whether therapeutic concentrations (> 0.5 to 1.0 μg/mL) of polymyxin B (PB) were achieved in the tarsocrural joint of horses when the drug was administered by IV regional limb perfusion (IV-RLP) via a saphenous vein at doses of 25, 50, and 300 mg and to describe any adverse systemic or local effects associated with such administration.


9 healthy adult horses.


In the first of 2 experiments, 6 horses each received 25 and 50 mg of PB by IV-RLP via a saphenous vein with at least 2 weeks between treatments. For each treatment, a tourniquet was placed at the midmetatarsus and another was placed midway between the stifle joint and tarsus. Both tourniquets were removed 30 minutes after the assigned dose was administered. Blood and tarsocrural joint fluid samples were collected for determination of PB concentration before and at predetermined times after drug administration. In experiment 2, 4 horses were administered 300 mg of PB by IV-RLP in 1 randomly selected pelvic limb in a manner identical to that used in experiment 1.


For all 3 doses, the mean synovial fluid PB concentration was > 10 times the therapeutic concentration and below the level of quantification at 30 and 1,440 minutes after drug administration, respectively. No adverse systemic or local effects were observed following PB administration.


Results suggested that IV-RLP of PB might be a viable alternative for treatment of horses with synovial infections caused by gram-negative bacteria.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


OBJECTIVE To determine the pharmacokinetics and adverse effects following SC administration of ceftiofur crystalline free acid (CCFA) in New Zealand White rabbits.

ANIMALS 6 adult sexually intact female New Zealand White rabbits.

PROCEDURES Each rabbit was administered 40 mg of CCFA/kg SC. A blood sample was obtained immediately before (0 minutes), at 5 and 30 minutes after, and at 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, 95, 120, 144, and 168 hours after administration, and plasma concentrations of ceftiofur free acid equivalents (CFAE) were measured. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. For each rabbit, body weight, food consumption, fecal output, and injection site were monitored. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of ceftiofur for 293 bacterial isolates from rabbit clinical samples were determined.

RESULTS Mean ± SD peak plasma concentration of CFAE and time to maximum plasma concentration were 33.13 ± 10.15 μg/mL and 1.75 ± 0.42 hours, respectively. The mean terminal half-life of CFAE was 42.6 ± 5.2 hours. Plasma CFAE concentration was > 4 μg/mL for approximately 24 hours and > 1 μg/mL for at least 72 hours after CCFA administration. An apparently nonpainful subcutaneous nodule developed at the injection site in 3 of 6 rabbits.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that CCFA (40 mg/kg) could be administered SC every 24 to 72 hours to New Zealand White rabbits to treat infections with ceftiofur-susceptible bacteria. Single-dose administration of CCFA resulted in minimal adverse effects. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the effects of repeated CCFA administration in New Zealand White rabbits.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research