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  • Author or Editor: Seyed Mehdi Rajaei x
  • Ophthalmology x
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OBJECTIVE To determine values for tear production, horizontal palpebral fissure length (HPFL), eye blink frequency, and intraocular pressure (IOP) in healthy Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

ANIMALS 40 healthy adult Syrian hamsters (80 eyes).

PROCEDURES Tear production was measured with the phenol red thread test (PRTT), modified Schirmer tear test (mSTT), and endodontic absorbent paper points tear test (EAPPTT). The IOP was measured by use of rebound tonometry. Correlations between test results and body weight were evaluated.

RESULTS Mean ± SD values for the IOP, PRTT, EAPPTT, mSTT, HPFL, and blink frequency for all 80 eyes were 4.55 ± 1.33 mm Hg, 5.57 ± 1.51 mm/15 s, 4.52 ± 1.55 mm/min, 2.07 ± 0.97 mm/min, 5.84 ± 0.45 mm, and 1.68 ± 0.43 blinks/min, respectively. For all variables, values did not differ significantly between the right and left eyes or between males and females. There was no correlation between measured variables and body weight.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results for this study provided information on values for the IOP, PRTT, mSTT, EAPPTT, HPFL, and eye blink frequency in healthy Syrian hamsters. It was important to determine reference intervals for this species because they commonly are kept as pets or used as research animals.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To determine effects of diurnal variation and anesthetic agents on intraocular pressure (IOP) in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).


90 healthy adult Syrian hamsters (45 males and 45 females).


IOP was measured with a rebound tonometer. In phase 1, IOP was measured in all hamsters 3 times during a 24-hour period (7 am, 3 pm, and 11 pm). In phase 2, hamsters were assigned to 5 groups (18 animals [9 males and 9 females]/group). Each group received an anesthetic agent or combination of anesthetic agents (ketamine hydrochloride, xylazine hydrochloride, diazepam, ketamine-diazepam [KD], or ketamine-xylazine [KX] groups) administered via the IP route. The IOP was measured before (time 0 [baseline]) and 10, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 minutes after administration of drugs.


Mean ± SD IOP values were 2.58 ± 0.87 mm Hg, 4.46 ± 1.58 mm Hg, and 5.96 ± 1.23 mm Hg at 7 am, 3 pm, and 11 pm, respectively. Mean baseline IOP was 6.25 ± 0.28 mm Hg, 6.12 ± 0.23 mm Hg, 5.75 ± 0.64 mm Hg, 5.12 ± 1.40 mm Hg, and 4.50 ± 1.30 mm Hg for the ketamine, xylazine, diazepam, KD, and KX groups, respectively. A significant decrease in IOP, compared with baseline IOP, was detected in only the KX group at 30, 60, and 90 minutes after drug administration.


Maximum IOP in Syrian hamsters was detected at night. The ketamine-xylazine anesthetic combination significantly decreased IOP in Syrian hamsters.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research