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Abstract

Objective

To determine the ability of porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV) infections to induce passive immunity in suckling pigs to transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) challenge exposure.

Design and Animals

4 TGEV seronegative sows and their litters (group A) served as controls, whereas 2 other groups (B and C) of sows (also TGEV seronegative) were oronasally inoculated with live PRCV during 1 or 2 subsequent pregnancies, respectively.

Procedure

Effectiveness of passive immunity provided to pigs via colostrum and milk was assessed after TGEV challenge exposure, and TGEV antibody responses in colostrum and milk were analyzed.

Results

Mortality in the 3 groups of young pigs correlated with severity of clinical signs of TGEV infection and was highest in control litters (86% in group-A pigs) and lowest in litters of sows inoculated with PRCV in 2 subsequent pregnancies (14% in group-C pigs). Virus-neutralization and IgA and IgG TGEV antibody titers of milk collected from sows at challenge exposure had significant positive correlation with litter survival. Significantly higher numbers of TGEV-specific IgA and IgG antibody-secreting cells were found in group-A pigs than in group-C pigs, suggesting that high titer of maternal antibodies (induced in group-C sows multiply exposed to PRCV) may interfere with active antibody responses.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Results suggest that, in PRCV-infected pig herds, multiple exposures of pregnant sows are associated with higher IgA and IgG antibody titers to TGEV in milk, and these titers contribute to protection against TGEV infection. (Am J Vet Res 1996; 57:664–671)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To compare recombinant transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) spike protein, (SP) R2-2, with attenuated live virus (ALV) vaccine in sows during late pregnancy.

Animals

13 TGEV-seronegative sows and their pigs.

Procedure

At prepartum weeks (PPW) 6 and 4, sows of groups 1 and 2 received ALV via the oral/intranasal (O/IN) route. At PPW 2, group-1 sows received ALV IM and group-2 sows received SPR2-2 IM. Group-3 sows received SPR2-2 IM at PPW 4 and ALV O/IN at PPW 2. Sows of group 4 (negative controls) were inoculated O/IN with mock-infected ST cell fluids at PPW 6 and 4 and IM with Sf9 cell lysates at PPW2 (n = 2), or IM with Sf9 cell lysates at PPW4 and O/IN with mock-infected ST cell fluids at PPW2 (2). Serum, colostrum, and milk samples were tested for antibody to TGEV, and a lymphoproliferative (LP) assay was done on blood mononuclear cells. Suckling pigs were challenge exposed with virulent TGEV.

Results

Sows of groups 1 and 2 had higher IgG and significantly higher antibody titers in colostrum; their pigs had significantly higher serum antibody titer. At challenge exposure of their pigs, LP responses of group-2 sows were significantly higher than those of sows in the other 3 groups. Mean pig mortality ranged from 43 (group 2) to 92% (group 4). Significant negative correlations were observed among litter mortality and sow LP response, colostral titer, and pig serum titer at time of challenge exposure.

Conclusions

In sows vaccinated twice with attenuated live TGEV, the recombinant SPR2-2 administered IM may be comparable to ALV administered IM as a booster. Vaccination failed to provide complete protection to suckling pigs after challenge exposure. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1002–1008)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research