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Serum concentrations of cefotaxime and desacetylcefotaxime were measured in 1-week-old pony foals after iv administration of a single dose of cefotaxime.

The cefotaxime disposition data conformed to a two-compartment model with elimination half-life of 0.60 hour. The combined cefotaxime and desacetylcefotaxime data was best described by a four-compartment model. The apparent half-life describing the disappearance of desacetylcefotaxime was 1.69 hours.

Dosage of 40 mg/kg of body weight given iv every 4 to 6 hours for neonatal foals with gram-negative septicemia and every 2 hours for foals with meningitis is recommended for further study.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Medical records of 46 horses with jugular vein thrombophlebitis that were evaluated ultrasonographically were reviewed. The ultrasonographic appearance of the thrombus within the jugular vein was classified as noncavitating if it had uniform low to medium amplitude echoes, or as cavitating if it was heterogenous with anechoic to hypoechoic areas representing fluid or necrotic areas within the thrombus, and/or hyperechoic areas representing gas. Signs of pain on palpation of the affected vein (P < 0.001), heat over the vein (P = 0.001), and swelling of the vein (P < 0.05) were significantly associated with the ultrasonographic detection of a cavitating lesion. Ultrasonography also was useful for selecting a site for aspiration of a specimen for bacteriologic culturing and susceptibility testing.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To identify clinical signs, underlying cardiac conditions, echocardiographic findings, and prognosis for horses with congestive heart failure.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—14 horses.

Procedure—Signalment; history; clinical signs; clinicopathologic, echocardiographic, and radiographic findings; treatment; and outcome were determined by reviewing medical records.

Results—All 14 horses were examined because of a heart murmur; tachycardia was identified in all 14. Twelve horses had echocardiographic evidence of enlargement of 1 or more chambers of the heart. Other common clinical findings included jugular distention or pulsation, crackles, cough, tachypnea, and ventral edema. Nine horses had signs consistent with heart failure for > 6 days. Underlying causes for heart failure included congenital defects, traumatic vascular rupture, pericarditis, pulmonary hypertension secondary to heaves, and valvular dysplasia. Seven horses were euthanatized after diagnosis of heart failure; 5 were discharged but were euthanatized or died of complications of heart disease within 1 year after discharge. The remaining 2 horses were discharged but lost to follow-up.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that congestive heart failure is rare in horses. A loud heart murmur accompanied by either jugular distention or pulsation, tachycardia, respiratory abnormalities (crackles, cough, tachypnea), and ventral edema were the most common clinical signs. Echocardiography was useful in determining the underlying cause in affected horses. The long-term prognosis for horses with congestive heart failure was grave. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:1512–1515)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association