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  • Author or Editor: S. L. Fubini x
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Summary

Nine adult female sheep were each surgically fitted with an Ivan and Johnston reentrant cannula in the cranial part of the duodenum just distal to the pylorus. By diversion (loss) of abomasal outflow, this model has been shown to consistently induce hypochloremic, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, accompanied by hyponatremia and dehydration. Each sheep was subjected to 3 treatment trials, each preceded by a 24-hour prediversion period, and a diversion period during which a syndrome of hypochloremia (68 ± 2 mEq/L), hypokalemia, hyponatremia, and metabolic alkalosis was induced.

Development of this syndrome was attributable to losses of large amounts of acid and electrolytes in the abomasal effluent. Mean total electrolyte contents of the effluent were: Cl, 650 ± 27 mEq; Na+, 388 ± 23 mEq; and K+, 123 ± 12 mEq, with total volume loss ranging from 3.6 to 10.0 L of gastric contents and pH ranging from 3 to 5. Decreases in plasma electrolyte concentrations also can be attributed to decreased intake, because anorexia developed shortly after the onset of diversion. Electrolyte losses in urine during diversion were minimal for Cl (mean ± sem, 12.0 ± 5.1 mEq), but were greater for Na+ (124.2 ± 14.5 mEq) and K+ (185.1 ± 31.2 mEq).

Treatments consisted of 0.9% NaCl (300 mosm/L), 3.6% NaCl (1,200 mosm/L), and 7.2% NaCl (2,400 mosm/L) administered over a 2-hour period, with the administered volume determined by the estimated total extracellular fluid Cl deficit. Significant difference was not found among treatments, with all solutions resulting in return of clinicopathologic and physical variables to prediversion values within 12 hours of treatment. We concluded that rapid iv replacement of Cl, with small volumes of hypertonic saline solution, is safe and effective for correction of experimentally induced hypochloremic, hypokalemic, metabolic alkalosis in sheep.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Five adult 40- to 50-kg female sheep were surgically fitted with a reentrant cannulae placed in the proximal part of the duodenum just distal to the pylorus. By diversion of abomasal outflow, this model has been shown to produce hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis accompanied by dehydration, hypokalemia, and hyponatremia. Each sheep was subjected to 3 separate, 12-hour iv treatment trials, in each case preceded by a control period of 48 hours, and a diversion period of 36 to 96 hours, during which a hypochloremic (Cl ≤ 60 ± 2 mEq/L) metabolic alkalosis with hypokalemia and hyponatremia was produced.

Treatment 1, consisting of 6 L of isotonic Na gluconate, was designed to replace volume without replenishing the Cl deficit. Although hydration improved, plasma Cl decreased further, and the sheep became increasingly weak and depressed. Treatment 2, consisting of 2 L of 1.8% NaCl, was designed to replace the Cl deficit without replacing total volume. Plasma Na+ and Cl concentrations returned to normal during the 12 hours of treatment; acid-base balance and plasma K+ concentrations returned to normal within 36 hours of treatment. During treatment 3 (control, no treatment), measured metabolic values changed minimally. We concluded that the iv replacement of Cl without K+ is effective in the correction of experimentally induced hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis in sheep.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research