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  • Author or Editor: Ronaldo C. da Costa x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To compare the percentage of the C3-C7 vertebral canal occupied by the spinal cord in small-breed dogs with that in Doberman Pinschers and Great Danes with and without cervical spondylomyelopathy (CSM).

ANIMALS 30 small-breed dogs (body weight, < 15 kg), 15 clinically normal Doberman Pinschers, 15 Doberman Pinschers with CSM, 15 clinically normal Great Danes, and 15 Great Danes with CSM.

PROCEDURES In a retrospective study, sagittal and transverse T2-weighted MRI images of the cervical (C3 to C7) vertebral column obtained from dogs that met study criteria and were free of extensive abnormalities that could affect the spinal cord diameter between January 2005 and February 2015 were reviewed. The area and height of the vertebral column and spinal cord were measured at the cranial and caudal aspect of each vertebra from C3 to C7, and the percentage of the vertebral canal occupied by the spinal cord at each location was calculated and compared among groups of dogs.

RESULTS Mean percentage of the vertebral canal occupied by the spinal cord was greatest for small-breed dogs and lowest for Great Danes, but did not differ between Doberman Pinschers and small-breed dogs at approximately half of the locations evaluated or between Doberman Pinschers with and without CSM or between Great Danes with and without CSM.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that the percentage of the vertebral canal occupied by the spinal cord, although expected to increase with vertebral canal stenosis, may not have a primary role in the pathogenesis of CSM.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare morphologic and morphometric features of the cervical vertebral column and spinal cord of Doberman Pinschers with and without clinical signs of cervical spondylomyelopathy (CSM; wobbler syndrome) detected via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Animals—16 clinically normal and 16 CSM-affected Doberman Pinschers.

Procedures—For each dog, MRI of the cervical vertebral column (in neutral and traction positions) was performed. Morphologically, MRI abnormalities were classified according to a spinal cord compression scale. Foraminal stenosis and intervertebral disk degeneration and protrusion were also recorded. Morphometric measurements of the vertebral canal and spinal cord were obtained in sagittal and transverse MRI planes.

Results—4 of 16 clinically normal and 15 of 16 CSM-affected dogs had spinal cord compression. Twelve clinically normal and all CSM-affected dogs had disk degeneration. Foraminal stenosis was detected in 11 clinically normal and 14 CSM-affected dogs. Vertebral canal and spinal cord areas were consistently smaller in CSM-affected dogs, compared with clinically normal dogs. In neutral and traction positions, the intervertebral disks of CSM-affected dogs were wider than those of clinically normal dogs but the amount of disk distraction was similar between groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The incidence of intervertebral disk degeneration and foraminal stenosis in clinically normal Doberman Pinschers was high; cervical spinal cord compression may be present without concurrent clinical signs. A combination of static factors (ie, a relatively stenotic vertebral canal and wider intervertebral disks) distinguished CSM-affected dogs from clinically normal dogs and appears to be a key feature in the pathogenesis of CSM.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To establish the reference ranges for motor evoked potential (MEP) latency and amplitude in clinically normal Doberman Pinschers, compare the MEPs of Doberman Pinschers with and without clinical signs of cervical spondylomyelopathy (CSM; wobbler syndrome), and determine whether MEP data correlate with neurologic or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings.

Animals—16 clinically normal and 16 CSM-affected Doberman Pinschers.

Procedures—Dogs were classified according to their neurologic deficits. After sedation with acepromazine and hydromorphone, transcranial magnetic MEPs were assessed in each dog; latencies and amplitudes were recorded from the extensor carpi radialis and cranial tibial muscles. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed to evaluate the presence and severity of spinal cord compression.

Results—Significant differences in cranial tibial muscle MEP latencies and amplitudes were detected between clinically normal and CSM-affected dogs. No differences in the extensor carpi radialis MEP were detected between groups. There was a significant correlation (r = 0.776) between the cranial tibial muscle MEP latencies and neurologic findings. Significant correlations were also found between MRI findings and the cranial tibial muscle MEP latencies (r = 0.757) and amplitudes (r = −0.453).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results provided a reference range for MEPs in clinically normal Doberman Pinschers and indicated that cranial tibial muscle MEP latencies correlated well with both MRI and neurologic findings. Because of the high correlation between cranial tibial muscle MEP data and neurologic and MRI findings, MEP assessment could be considered as a screening tool in the management of dogs with spinal cord disease.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research