Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 10 items for

  • Author or Editor: Robert J. Hunt x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Using a pump-perfused extracorporeal isolated digital preparation, the effects of a 30-minute infusion of either saline solution (control) or endotoxin on equine digital hemodynamics and microvascular function were determined. Digital blood flow and arterial, venous, and capillary pressures were recorded at 15-minute intervals for 150 minutes. From these data, total vascular resistance and pre- and postcapillary resistances were calculated. Isogravimetric capillary filtration coefficient, vascular compliance, and the osmotic reflection coefficient were determined after the last hemodynamic measurements were taken.

Changes in hemodynamic values of control equine digits were not observed. During the 120 minutes after infusion of endotoxin, digital blood flow decreased 43%, and total vascular resistance increased 89%. Precapillary resistance increased 122%, but postcapillary resistance did not change significantly. Changes in vascular compliance or the capillary filtration coefficient were not observed in response to either treatment. The osmotic reflection coefficient, an index of permeability, did not differ significantly between digits of the endotoxin-treated and control groups. These data indicate that the increase in vascular resistance during endotoxemia may have been attributable to arterial/arteriolar constriction and that neither the permeability nor the surface area of the exchange vasculature within the digit was significantly affected by endotoxin. Although marked alterations in vascular function are seen after administration of endotoxin, these changes do not parallel those documented in association with experimentally induced laminitis.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Palmar digital arterial blood flow was measured in 6 conscious, standing horses, using surgically placed perivascular ultrasonic flow probes. The effects of 2 dosages of xylazine (0.55 and 1.1 mg/kg of body weight) and of 3 dosages of acetylpromazine (0.01, 0.02, and 0.04 mg/kg), as well as the effect of vertical load, on digital blood flow were evaluated. Intravenous administration of xylazine induced a significant (P < 0.05), transient decrease in digital blood flow. Intravenous administration of acetylpromazine induced a significant (P < 0.05), prolonged increase in digital blood flow. Correlation between vertical load and digital blood flow was found. The results of this study indicate that use of actylpromazine may be beneficial in clinical treatment of horses with reduced digital blood flow. Xylazine, on the other hand, may exacerbate ischemic conditions of the digit and should be used with caution.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

In 6 adult horses anesthetized with pentobarbital, the hemodynamic responses of the equine digit to infusion of dopamine were evaluated by use of an isolated extra corporeal pump perfused digital preparation. Digital blood flow was maintained at a constant rate that was independent of systemic hemodynamic changes. Three sequential experiments were performed on each horse. In the first experiment (n = 6), dopamine was infused iv at rates of 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 μg/kg/min. For the second experiment (n = 5), dopamine (400 μg/ml) was infused into the digital artery at the rates of 0.07, 0.7, and 1.2 ml/min. The third experiment (n = 5) consisted of a 5-minute intra-arterial infusion of phentoalamine followed by the intra-arterial infusion of dopamine while continuing the infusion of phentolamine. Digital venous, arterial, and capillary pressures, total digital vascular resistance, and precapillary to postcapillary resistance ratios were determined in each experiment.

Systemic infusion of dopamine did not induce changes in the hemodynamics of the digital vasculature. Digital arterial infusion of dopamine alone resulted in a dosedependent increase in arterial pressure, total digital vascular resistance, and an increase in the precapillary to postcapillary resistance ratio. Phentolamine attenuated the vasoconstrictive response elicited by intra-arterial infusion of dopamine.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine effects of parturition on glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression in neutrophils, serum cortisol concentration, and total blood leukocyte and neutrophil counts in periparturient dairy cows.

Animals—23 Holstein cows.

Procedure—Blood samples were collected from 8 multiparous and 5 primiparous periparturient cows at various times from 28 days before parturition until 14 days after parturition. Glucocorticoid receptor expression in neutrophils, serum cortisol concentration, and total blood leukocyte and neutrophil counts were determined. Results were compared with results from control samples obtained from 5 multiparous and 5 primiparous Holstein cows in midpregnancy.

Results—Neutrophils from periparturient cows had 49% reduction in GR expression at calving, compared with GR expression 2 to 4 weeks before calving, and 39% reduction, compared with neutrophils from cows in midpregnancy. Reduction in neutrophil GR expression began 1 week before calving and was most severe at calving and 24 hours after calving; a significant difference in GR expression was detected between primiparous and multiparous cows. Serum cortisol concentrations and total leukocyte and neutrophil counts were significantly increased at calving and returned to baseline values by 24 hours after calving. Significant negative correlations were detected between neutrophil GR expression and serum cortisol concentration, total leukocyte count, and neutrophil count.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Reduced GR expression in blood neutrophils of periparturient dairy cows was associated with increased serum cortisol concentrations, leukocytosis, and neutrophilia. Thus, GR down-regulation in neutrophils may be involved in periparturient neutrophil dysregulation and may cause increased susceptibility to mastitis. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:14–19)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To investigate risk factors for the development of pasture- and endocrinopathy-associated laminitis (PEAL) in horses and ponies in North America.

DESIGN Case-control study.

ANIMALS 199 horses with incident cases of PEAL and 351 horses from 2 control populations (healthy horses [n = 198] and horses with lameness not caused by laminitis [153]) that were evaluated in North America between January 2012 and December 2015 by veterinarian members of the American Association of Equine Practitioners.

PROCEDURES North American members of the American Association of Equine Practitioners were contacted to participate in the study, and participating veterinarians provided historical data on incident cases of PEAL, each matched with a healthy control and a lameness control. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to compare data on PEAL-affected horses with data on horses from each set of controls.

RESULTS Horses with an obese body condition (ie, body condition score ≥ 7), generalized or regional adiposity (alone or in combination), preexisting endocrinopathy, or recent (within 30 days) glucocorticoid administration had increased odds of developing PEAL, compared with horses that did not have these findings.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The present study identified several risk factors for PEAL that may assist not only in managing and preventing this form of laminitis, but also in guiding future research into its pathogenesis.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association