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Abstract

Objective—–To compare transfixation and standard full-limb casts for prevention of in vitro displacement of a mid-diaphyseal third metacarpal osteotomy site in horses.

Sample Population—6 forelimbs from 6 horses euthanatized for reasons not related to the musculoskeletal system.

Procedure—A 30° osteotomy was performed in the mid-diaphysis of the third metacarpal bone. Two 4.5-mm cortical bone screws were placed across the osteotomy site to maintain alignment during casting. Two 6.35-mm Steinmann pins were placed from a lateral-to-medial direction in the distal aspect of the radius. A full-limb cast that incorporated the pins was applied. An extensometer was positioned in the osteotomy site through a window placed in the dorsal aspect of the cast, and after removal of the screws, displacement was recorded while the limb was axially loaded to 5,340 N (1,200 lb). Pins were removed, and the standard full-limb cast was tested in a similar fashion.

Results—The transfixation cast significantly reduced displacement across the osteotomy site at 445 N (100 lb), 1,112 N (250 lb), 2,224 N (500 lb), and 4,448 N (1,000 lb), compared with the standard cast.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—A full-limb transfixation cast provides significantly greater resistance than a standard full-limb cast against axial collapse of a mid-diaphyseal third metacarpal osteotomy site when the bone is placed under axial compression. Placement of full-limb transfixation casts should be considered for the management of unstable fractures of the third metacarpal bone in horses. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1633–1635)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Objective

To determine the effect of pin hole size and number on the breaking strength of the adult equine radius when loaded in torsion to failure.

Sample Population

54 pairs of equine radii from adult horses.

Procedure

For test one, 12 pairs of radii were used to determine the effect of pin hole size on torsional breaking strength. A 6.35-mm hole was drilled in 1 radius, and a 9.5-mm hole was drilled in the contralateral radius. For test two, 36 pairs of radii were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups (n = 12) to determine the effect of pin hole number on the torsional breaking strength of the equine radius. One radius of each pair served as a control, and one, three, or six 6.35-mm transcortical holes were drilled in the contralateral radius. For test three, 6 pairs of radii had torsional forces applied directly to the transfixation pins, as opposed to the bone itself. One radius of a pair served as a control, and three 6.35-mm smooth Steinman pins were placed in the contralateral radius. All radii were loaded in torsion to failure, and the breaking strengths were recorded.

Results

Compared with the 6.35-mm hole, the 9.5-mm hole significantly decreased torsional strength of the radius. There was no significant difference in mean torsional strength between the control radii and the radii with 1, 3, or 6 transcortical holes or when the transfixation pins were loaded.

Conclusion

Use of up to three 6.35-mm transfixation pins can be used in a full-limb transfixation pin cast to optimize stiffness without a significant decrease (12%) in bone strength. (Am J Vet Res 1998; 59:201–204)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Objective

To determine the ability of a full-limb transfixation pin cast to protect the distal portion of the equine forelimb from weight-bearing forces by measuring bone strain in vitro on cadaver limbs loaded in a mechanical testing machine.

Sample Population

6 forelimbs from 6 horses.

Procedure

Each limb was instrumented with 3 unidirectional metal foil electrical resistant strain gauges. Gauges were placed on the dorsal aspect of the distal portion of the radius and the mid-dorsal portion of the cortex of the third metacarpal bone and the first phalanx. Each limb was tested 3 times, once supported with a transfixation pin cast, once supported by a standard full-limb cast, and finally, uncast. The limbs were tested in a mechanical testing machine under axial loads ranging from 100 to 1,000 lb, and bone strains were recorded at each load.

Results

Compared with values for the uncast limb, the transfixation pin cast and the standard full-limb cast significantly (P < 0.001) reduced bone strain on the distal portion of the radius, third metacarpal bone, and first phalanx. Compared with the standard full-limb cast, the transfixation pin cast significantly (P < 0.001) reduced bone strain on the first phalanx.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance

Compared with the standard full limb cast, the full-limb transfixation pin cast is more protective of the first phalanx. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:197–200)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate and compare circulating concentrations of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), insulin, and glucose in nondiabetic cats classified by body condition score (BCS) and in cats with naturally occurring diabetes mellitus.

Animals—109 (82 nondiabetic, 21 nonketoacidotic diabetic, and 6 ketoacidotic diabetic) cats.

Procedures—Cats were examined and BCSs were assessed on a scale of 1 to 9. After food was withheld for 12 hours, blood was collected and plasma concentrations of IAPP and serum concentrations of insulin and glucose were measured. Differences in these values were evaluated among nondiabetic cats grouped according to BCS and in diabetic cats grouped as ketoacidotic or nonketoacidotic on the basis of clinicopathologic findings. Correlations were determined among variables.

Results—In nondiabetic cats, BCS was significantly and positively correlated with circulating IAPP and insulin concentrations. Mean plasma IAPP concentrations were significantly different between cats with BCSs of 5 and 7, and mean serum insulin concentrations were significantly different between cats with BCSs of 5 and 8. Serum glucose concentrations were not significantly different among nondiabetic cats. Mean IAPP concentrations were similar between nonketoacidotic diabetic cats and nondiabetic cats with BCSs of 8 or 9. Mean IAPP concentrations were significantly reduced in ketoacidotic diabetic cats, compared with those of nondiabetic cats with BCSs of 6 through 8 and of nonketoacidotic diabetic cats.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that increased BCS (a measure of obesity) is associated with increased circulating concentrations of IAPP and insulin in nondiabetic cats.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the use of transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) for the assessment of prostatic tumors in dogs and to compare results for TRUS with results for other imaging modalities.

ANIMALS

10 client-owned male dogs.

PROCEDURES

Client-owned dogs identified with prostatic carcinoma were enrolled. Fluoroscopy, transabdominal ultrasonography (TAUS), TRUS, and MRI were performed on all dogs. Tumor measurements, urethral penetration (identification of abnormal tissue within the urethral lumen), and tumor extension into the urinary tract were recorded for all imaging modalities. Agreement between results for MRI (considered the criterion-referenced standard) and results for other modalities were compared.

RESULTS

Median body weight of the 10 dogs was 26.3 kg (range, 9.4 to 49.5 kg). No complications were encountered during or after TRUS. Significant moderate to good agreements (intraclass correlation coefficients, 0.60 to 0.86) among TAUS, TRUS, fluoroscopy, and MRI were identified for tumor length and height. Assessments of urethral penetration and tumor extension into the bladder with TRUS did not differ significantly from those made with MRI and were superior in terms of absolute agreement with MRI when compared with those for TAUS.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

TRUS was successfully and safely used to evaluate prostatic carcinoma in dogs. There was moderate to good agreement with MRI results for tumor height and length measurements, and TRUS was found to be superior to TAUS for some assessments. Transrectal ultrasonography can be considered an adjunctive imaging modality for the performance of prostatic interventional procedures or assessment of response to treatment.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION

3 dogs with retroperitoneal masses (2 renal and 1 located near the diaphragm) were treated by percutaneous microwave ablation (MWA).

CLINICAL FINDINGS

Dogs between 11 and 13 years of age weighing between 13.7 and 43.8 kg had either a renal mass (n = 2) or a mass located in the caudodorsal aspect of the retroperitoneal space near the right side of the diaphragm (1). Cytology revealed that one of the renal masses and the mass located near the diaphragm were malignant neoplasias. Findings on cytologic evaluation of a sample of the other renal mass was nondiagnostic. Maximum mass diameters ranged between 1.4 and 2.5 cm.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

All dogs were treated by percutaneous MWA. Probes were directed into tumors by use of ultrasound and CT guidance, and microwave energy was applied to each mass. Findings on imaging of each mass following MWA was consistent with successful treatment. No intraprocedural or major postprocedural complications occurred, and all dogs were discharged from the hospital within 3 days of treatment. Two dogs died at 3 and 21 months after MWA with no known local recurrence; 1 dog was still alive 64 months after treatment.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Although the indications for MWA in the treatment of neoplasia in companion animals are limited, the outcomes of dogs in the present report provided preliminary evidence that percutaneous MWA can be safely used to effectively treat retroperitoneal neoplasia. This procedure was successfully performed with image guidance in all 3 dogs.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association