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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


To determine signalment, diagnoses, presence of effusions in multiple sites, and outcome in cats with peritoneal effusion.


Retrospective case series.


65 cats.


Medical records from 1981 to 1997 were reviewed to obtain information on cats with peritoneal effusion identified on physical examination, radiographs, abdominal ultrasonograms, or at necropsy.


Conditions most commonly associated with peritoneal effusion in cats, in order of frequency, were cardiovascular disease, neoplasia, hepatic disease, renal disease, feline infectious peritonitis, peritonitis attributable to other causes, and urinary tract trauma. Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) was the most common disease associated with peritoneal effusion; however, DCM was diagnosed in most of these cats before taurine deficiency was found to be a primary cause of this form of cardiomyopathy in cats. Neoplasia was the most common cause after 1987. Right-sided congestive heart failure was the most commonly associated disorder in cats < 1 year old, whereas neoplastic disease was more common with increasing age. Most effusions were detected during the initial physical examination and were modified transudates. Peritoneal effusion was commonly accompanied by fluid accumulation elsewhere, particularly pleural effusion. The prognosis for a cat with abdominal effusion in this study was poor (mean survival time, 21 days; range, 1 to 350 days; median, 2.5 days).

Clinical Implications

The primary differential diagnosis for peritoneal effusion in cats is neoplastic disease in older cats and right-sided heart failure in kittens. Diseases associated with peritoneal effusion generally have poor prognoses. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;214:375–381)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Changes in platelet indices (platelet count and platelet size) and pcv associated with thyroid disease were studied in 7 dogs with hypothyroidism and 21 cats with hyperthyroidism that were admitted to the veterinary teaching hospital. Compared with control (euthyroid) dogs, dogs with hypothyroidism had higher platelet count (P = 0.003), smaller platelet size (P = 0.01), and lower pcv (P = 0.02). Comparison of the group of hyperthyroid cats with a group of similarly aged, clinically normal cats with normal thyroxine values indicated that the group of hyperthyroid cats had significantly (P = 0.03) higher mean platelet size than did control cats, but differences were not found in mean platelet count or pcv. Results of this investigation indicate that the changes in platelet size reported in human beings with thyroid endocrinopathies also are found in animals so-affected. Although the pathogenesis of platelet abnormalities in animals with thyroid derangement is unclear and likely is multifactorial, the observed relation between platelet and erythrocyte production in this group of dogs is consistent with reports of an inverse relation between thrombocytopoiesis and erythropoiesis in iatrogenically hyperthyroid mice and in mice exposed to hypoxia.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To compare induction and recovery characteristics and cardiopulmonary effects of isoflurane and sevoflurane in bald eagles.

Animals—17 healthy adult bald eagles.

Procedures—Anesthesia was induced with isoflurane or sevoflurane delivered in oxygen via a facemask in a crossover design with 4 weeks between treatments. Eagles were intubated, allowed to breathe spontaneously, and instrumented for cardiopulmonary measurements. Time to induction, extubation, and recovery, as well as smoothness of recovery, were recorded.

Results—Administration of sevoflurane resulted in a significantly quicker recovery, compared with isoflurane. Temperature, heart rate, and respiratory rate significantly decreased over time, whereas systolic (SAP), diastolic (DAP), and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) significantly increased over time with each treatment. Temperature, heart rate, SAP, DAP, and MAP were significantly higher with isoflurane. Blood pH significantly decreased, whereas PaCO2 significantly increased over time with each treatment. Bicarbonate and total carbon dioxide concentrations significantly increased over time with each treatment; however, there was a significant time-treatment interaction. The PaO2 and arterial oxygen saturation increased over time with isoflurane and decreased over time with sevoflurane with a significant time-treatment interaction. Six eagles developed cardiac arrhythmias with isoflurane, as did 4 with sevoflurane anesthesia.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Isoflurane and sevoflurane administration resulted in smooth, rapid induction of and recovery from anesthesia similar to other species. Isoflurane administration resulted in tachycardia, hypertension, and more arrhythmias, compared with sevoflurane. Sevoflurane was associated with fewer adverse effects and may be particularly beneficial in compromised bald eagles.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Five dogs with mucopolysaccharidosis I, 3 of which had been treated with bone marrow transplantation (bmt), were evaluated for 20 months with electrocardiography, thoracic radiography, and M-mode and 2-dimensional echocardiography. Treated and untreated (control) dogs had widened P waves on ecg. Thoracic radiographs remained normal for all dogs throughout the study. Thickening of the mitral valve was observed on echocardiograms of dogs in both groups, but the untreated dogs appeared to have thicker valves. Concentrations of glycosaminoglycans in the mitral valves and myocardium were higher in control dogs than in treated dogs. Markedly large aortic root diameters were observed on echocardiograms in both untreated dogs, but aortic root diameters remained normal in treated dogs. Echocardiography, but not electrocardiography, was useful in monitoring heart enlargement in each dog. Dogs treated with bmt generally had less-severe cardiac changes and slower disease progression than control dogs.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research