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  • Author or Editor: Rachel A. Allbaugh x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare the efficacy of 0.05% difluprednate ophthalmic emulsion and 1% prednisolone acetate ophthalmic suspension for controlling aqueocentesis-induced breakdown of the blood-aqueous barrier in healthy dogs.

ANIMALS

34 healthy dogs.

PROCEDURES

Dogs were allocated to 5 groups (6 to 8 dogs/group) to receive 0.05% difluprednate, 1% prednisolone acetate, or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (control treatment) in both eyes 2 or 4 times daily. Eye drops were administered topically for 5 consecutive days. Anterior chamber paracentesis (aqueocentesis) was performed in 1 eye on the third day. Automated fluorophotometry was performed immediately before and 20 minutes and 24 and 48 hours after aqueocentesis. Relative fluorescence (RF), defined as fluorescence of the eye that had undergone aqueocentesis divided by fluorescence of the contralateral eye, was calculated to help control for variation among dogs.

RESULTS

Mean RF was significantly lower at 24 hours after aqueocentesis in dogs treated twice daily with 0.05% difluprednate or 4 times daily with 1% prednisolone acetate than in dogs receiving the control treatment. At 48 hours after aqueocentesis, mean RF was significantly lower in dogs treated 4 times daily with 1% prednisolone acetate than in control dogs. Mean RF differed over time in dogs treated 4 times daily with 0.05% difluprednate but did not differ over time for any of the other treatments.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

All 4 treatments were effective for reducing aqueocentesis-induced anterior uveitis in healthy dogs regardless of the drug or frequency of administration. Topical ophthalmic administration of 0.05% difluprednate may be a viable treatment option for dogs with anterior uveitis and warrants further study.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To measure ocular effects (blood-aqueous barrier breakdown and intraocular pressure [IOP]) following aqueocentesis performed with needles of various sizes in dogs.

Animals—28 healthy adult dogs.

Procedures—24 dogs underwent unilateral aqueocentesis (24 treated eyes and 24 contra-lateral untreated eyes); 25-, 27-, or 30-gauge needles were used in 3 treatment groups (n = 8/group). Four dogs were untreated controls. Aqueocentesis was performed during sedation and topical anesthesia. Anterior chamber fluorophotometry was performed before and after aqueocentesis on day 1. On days 2 through 5, sedation and fluorophotometry were repeated. Intraocular pressure was measured with a rebound tonometer at multiple time points.

Results—Aqueocentesis resulted in blood-aqueous barrier breakdown detected via fluorophotometry in all treated eyes, with barrier reestablishment by day 5. On day 2, the contralateral untreated eyes of all 3 groups also had significantly increased fluorescence. Use of a 25-gauge needle resulted in a significant increase in treated eyes' anterior chamber fluorescence on days 3 and 5 as well as a significant increase in IOP 20 minutes following aqueocentesis, compared with the other treatment groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Aqueocentesis performed with a 25-gauge needle resulted in the greatest degree of blood-aqueous barrier breakdown and a brief state of intraocular hypertension. Use of a 27- or 30-gauge needle is recommended for aqueous paracentesis. A consensual ocular reaction appeared to occur in dogs following unilateral traumatic blood-aqueous barrier breakdown and may be of clinical importance.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate aqueous humor flow rate in the eyes of clinically normal cats by use of a noninvasive technique successfully used in other species.

Animals—20 domestic shorthair cats.

Procedures—1 drop of 10% fluorescein sodium was instilled into both eyes of 5 cats every 5 minutes until 3 drops had been administered. Fluorophotometry was performed at 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 hours after fluorescein application to monitor fluorescein removal and determine aqueous humor flow rate. The 3-drop protocol was used for the remaining 15 cats, and fluorophotometry was performed at 5, 6, 7, and 8 hours after fluorescein application. Aqueous humor flow rates were calculated manually by use of established equations with minor adjustments to constant values to reflect feline anatomic features. Correlation coefficients and slope ratios were calculated to assess the legitimacy of the flow rate data. Paired t tests were calculated to assess for differences between the right and left eyes.

Results—Mean ± SD calculated aqueous humor flow rate in the right, left, and both eyes of the 20 cats was 5.94 ± 2.30 μL/min, 5.05 ± 2.06 μL/min, and 5.51 ± 2.21 μL/min, respectively. Correlation coefficients and slope ratios revealed that the aqueous humor flow rates were accurate. No significant differences in values for the right and left eyes were detected.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Accurate aqueous humor flow values for cats can be determined by use of the fluorophotometric technique evaluated in this study.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of ocular administration of ophthalmic 2% dorzolamide hydrochloride solution on aqueous humor flow rate (AHFR) and intraocular pressure (IOP) in clinically normal cats.

Animals—20 clinically normal domestic shorthair cats.

Procedures—Following an acclimation period, IOP was measured in each eye of all cats 5 times daily for 3 days to determine baseline values. Fifteen cats received 1 drop of 2% dorzolamide solution and 5 cats received 1 drop of control solution in each eye every 8 hours for 5 days (treatment phase). The IOP of each eye was measured 5 times during each day of the treatment phase. Prior to and after the treatment phase, AHFR in both eyes of each cat was measured via fluorophotometry.

Results—Prior to treatment, AHFR or IOP did not differ between the treatment and control groups. In dorzolamide-treated cats, mean AHFR after the treatment phase (3.47 ± 1.5 μL/min) was significantly lower than the value prior to treatment (5.90 ± 2.2 μL/min) and mean IOP during the treatment phase (11.1 ± 1.0 mm Hg) was significantly lower than the baseline mean IOP (14.9 ± 1.0 mm Hg). In the control group, IOP values did not differ before or during the treatment phase and AHFRs did not differ before and after the treatment phase.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ocular administration of 2% dorzolamide solution significantly decreased AHFR and IOP in clinically normal cats. Application of 2% dorzolamide solution may be an effective treatment in cats with glaucoma.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To assess inhibitory effects of orally administered anti-inflammatory medications on paracentesis-induced intraocular inflammation in clinically normal cats.

Animals—30 clinically normal domestic shorthair cats.

Procedures—Cats were randomly assigned to a control group and 4 treatment groups. Cats in the treatment groups received an anti-inflammatory medication orally once daily at 7 am (acetylsalicylic acid [40.5 mg/cat], meloxicam [0.1 mg/kg], prednisone [5 mg/cat], or prednisolone [5 mg/cat]) for 5 days beginning 2 days before paracentesis-induced breakdown of the blood-aqueous barrier (BAB) and continuing until 2 days after paracentesis. Paracentesis of the anterior chamber was performed in 1 randomly selected eye of each cat. Fluorophotometry was performed in both eyes of each cat immediately before (time 0) and 6, 24, and 48 hours after paracentesis.

Results—At 24 and 48 hours after paracentesis, fluorescein concentration in the eye subjected to paracentesis in the cats receiving prednisolone was decreased, compared with that in the control cats. At 48 hours, a decrease in the fluorescein concentration was also apparent in the eye subjected to paracentesis in the cats receiving meloxicam, compared with that in the control cats. There was no evidence of treatment effects for acetylsalicylic acid or prednisone. There was no evidence of treatment effects in eyes not subjected to paracentesis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Orally administered prednisolone and meloxicam significantly decreased intraocular inflammation in clinically normal cats with paracentesis-induced BAB breakdown. Oral administration of prednisolone or meloxicam may be an effective treatment for cats with uveitis.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare efficacy and duration of effect on corneal sensitivity of 0.5% proparacaine hydrochloride, 0.5% bupivacaine hydrochloride, 2% lidocaine hydrochloride, and 2% mepivacaine hydrochloride solutions following ocular administration in clinically normal horses.

Animals—68 clinically normal horses.

Procedures—60 horses were assigned to receive 1 anesthetic agent in 1 eye. For each of another 8 horses, 1 eye was treated with each of the anesthetic agents in random order with a 1-week washout period between treatments. Corneal sensitivity was assessed via corneal touch threshold (CTT) measurements obtained with a Cochet-Bonnet aesthesiometer before and at 1 minute, at 5-minute intervals from 5 to 60 minutes, and at 10-minute intervals from 60 to 90 minutes after application of 0.2 mL of anesthetic agent. General linear mixed models were fitted to the CTT data from each of the 2 experimental groups to assess the effects of the anesthetic agents over time, accounting for repeated observations within individual horses.

Results—Corneal sensitivity decreased immediately following topical application of each anesthetic agent; effects persisted for 35 minutes for proparacaine and mepivacaine treatments, 45 minutes for lidocaine treatment, and 60 minutes for bupivacaine treatment. Maximal CTT reduction was achieved following application of bupivacaine or proparacaine solution, whereas mepivacaine solution was least effective.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ocular application of each evaluated anesthetic agent reduced corneal sensitivity in horses; although 0.5% proparacaine or 2% lidocaine solution appeared to induce adequate short-duration corneal anesthesia, use of 0.5% bupivacaine solution may be more appropriate for procedures requiring longer periods of corneal anesthesia.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine whether 2- or 3-times-daily application of topical ophthalmic 0.005% latanoprost solution is more effective at lowering intraocular pressure (IOP) in clinically normal dogs.

ANIMALS 9 clinically normal dogs.

PROCEDURES For each dog, I drop of latanoprost 0.005% solution was applied to 1 eye every 8 or 12 hours each day for 5 days; the contralateral eye received topical ophthalmic treatment with 1 drop of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution at the times of latanoprost application. Ocular examinations of both eyes were performed every 6 hours starting 48 hours prior to and ending 42 hours after the treatment period. Following a 5-week washout interval, the procedures were repeated but the previously latanoprost-treated eye of each dog received latanoprost application at the alternate frequency.

RESULTS Mean ± SD IOP reduction in the latanoprost-treated eyes was 31 ± 6.9% with 2-times-daily application and 33 ± 8.2% with 3-times-daily application. A 2-way repeated-measures ANOVA revealed significant differences in IOP with contributions by treatment (2 or 3 times daily), time of day (diurnal variation), and individual dog. The maximum mean daily IOP reduction in latanoprost-treated eyes was detected on day 3 of latanoprost treatment in each group. Eyes treated 3 times daily had significantly smaller pupil diameter and greater conjunctival hyperemia than eyes treated 2 times daily.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The clinical importance of the ocular hypotensive effects of 3-times-daily topical ophthalmic application of 0.005% latanoprost solution in dogs with glaucoma warrants investigation.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research