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  • Author or Editor: R. Wayne Waguespack x
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To compare the levels of mRNA expression of cycooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 in the digital laminae of normal horses and horses in the developmental stages of laminitis experimentally induced by administration of black walnut extract (BWE).

Sample Population—Samples of mRNA extracted from the digital laminae of 5 control horses and 5 horses at the onset of leukopenia after administration of BWE.

Procedure—Specimens of laminae were collected from anesthetized horses prior to euthanasia. Expression of COX-1 and COX-2 mRNA in laminae of control and affected horses was evaluated via realtime quantitative polymerase chain reaction techniques.

Results—Expression of COX-2 mRNA was significantly increased in the BWE-treated group, compared with that in control horses. In contrast to COX-2 regulation, COX-1 mRNA expression was not significantly different between groups. Interestingly, despite consistent clinical signs such as leukopenia in all BWE-treated horses, distinct differences in COX-2 mRNA expression were detected among those 5 horses (compared with values for control horses, the increase in COX-2 mRNA expression ranged from no increase to a 30-fold increase).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that there was a significant upregulation of COX-2 mRNA expression during the developmental stages of laminitis, with no significant change in expression of the COX-1 isoform. These data appear to provide support for aggressive use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in horses at risk for laminitis; further investigation into the clinical value of selective COX-2 inhibitors for treatment of laminitis in horses appears to be warranted. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1724–1729)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To compare the outcomes of doublelayer inverting anastomosis (DIA), single-layer anastomosis (SLA), and single-layer anastomosis combined with a hyaluronate membrane (SLA+HA-membrane) with respect to stomal diameter, adhesion formation, surgery time, and anastomotic healing in horses.

Animals—18 adult horses.

Procedure—Midline celiotomy and end-to-end anastomoses were performed. In control horses (n = 6), DIA was performed; in treated horses, SLA was performed (6) or SLA+HA-membrane was performed (6). Horses were euthanatized 21 days after surgery. Abdominal adhesions were evaluated grossly and histologically. Stomal diameters were measured ultrasonographically and compared with adjacent luminal diameters. Anastomotic healing was evaluated histologically for fibrosis and inflammation, tissue alignment, and inversion. Surgery times were recorded for the anastomotic procedure and compared among groups.

Results—There were significantly more adhesions in the SLA group, compared with the DIA and SLA+HAmembrane groups. Reduction in stomal diameters in the DIA group was significantly greater than the SLA and SLA+HA-membrane groups. Surgery times for the DIA group were significantly greater than the SLA and SLA+HA-membrane groups. Histologic findings of fibrosis, inflammation, and mucosal healing were similar among groups. There was significant tissue inversion in the DIA group, compared with the 2 treatment groups. Tissue alignment was not different among groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Use of a SLA+HA-membrane was an effective small intestinal anastomotic technique. This technique was faster to perform and resulted in a larger stomal diameter, compared with the DIA technique and significantly fewer perianastomotic adhesions, compared with the SLA technique. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1314–1319)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research