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- Author or Editor: R. Clark Billinghurst x
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Objective—To evaluate the temporal pattern of prostaglandin (PG) E2 concentrations in synovial fluid after transection of the cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) in dogs and to correlate PGE2 concentrations with ground reaction forces and subjective clinical variables for lameness or pain.
Animals—19 purpose-bred adult male Walker Hounds.
Procedure—Force plate measurements, subjective clinical analysis of pain or lameness, and samples of synovial fluid were obtained before (baseline) and at various time points after arthroscopic transection of the right CCL. Concentrations of PGE2 were measured in synovial fluid samples, and the PGE2 concentrations were correlated with ground reaction forces and clinical variables.
Results—The PGE2 concentration increased significantly above the baseline value throughout the entire study, peaking 14 days after transection. Peak vertical force and vertical impulse significantly decreased by day 14 after transection, followed by an increase over time without returning to baseline values. All clinical variables (eg, lameness, degree of weight bearing, joint extension, cumulative pain score, effusion score, and total protein content of synovial fluid, except for WBC count in synovial fluid) increased significantly above baseline values. Significant negative correlations were detected between PGE2 concentrations and peak vertical force (r, –0.5720) and vertical impulse (r, –0.4618), and significant positive correlations were detected between PGE2 concentrations and the subjective lameness score (r, 0.5016) and effusion score (r, 0.6817).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Assessment of the acute inflammatory process by measurement of PGE2 concentrations in synovial fluid may be correlated with the amount of pain or lameness in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1269–1275)
Objective—To determine whether decreases in peak vertical force of the hind limb after transection of the cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) would be indicative of medial meniscal damage in dogs.
Animals—39 purpose-bred adult male Walker Hounds.
Procedure—The right CrCL was transected arthroscopically. Force plate measurements of the right hind limb were made prior to and 2, 4, 10, and 18 weeks after transection of the CrCL. Only dogs with ≥ 10% decreases in peak vertical force after week 2 were considered to have potential meniscal damage. Dogs that did not have ≥ 10% decreases in peak vertical force at any time point after week 2 were assigned to group 1. Group 2 dogs had ≥ 10% decreases in peak vertical force from weeks 2 to 4 only. Group 3 and 4 dogs had ≥ 10% decreases in peak vertical force from weeks 4 to 10 only or from weeks 10 to 18 only, respectively. Damage to menisci and articular cartilage was graded at week 18, and grades for groups 2 to 4 were compared with those of group 1.
Results—The percentage change in peak vertical force and impulse area was significantly different in groups 2 (n = 4), 3 (4), and 4 (4) at the end of each measurement period (weeks 4, 10, and 18, respectively) than in group 1 (27). The meniscal grade for groups 2 to 4 was significantly higher than for group 1. A ≥ 10% decrease in peak vertical force had sensitivity of 52% and accuracy of 72% for identifying dogs with moderate to severe medial meniscal damage.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In dogs with transected or ruptured CrCLs, force plate analysis can detect acute exacerbation of lameness, which may be the result of secondary meniscal damage, and provide an objective noninvasive technique that delineates the temporal pattern of medial meniscal injury. ( Am J Vet Res 2005;66:156–163)
Objective—To develop an antibody that specifically recognizes collagenase-cleaved type-II collagen in equine articular cartilage.
Sample Population—Cartilage specimens from horses euthanatized for problems unrelated to the musculoskeletal system.
Procedure—A peptide was synthesized representing the carboxy- (C-) terminus (neoepitope) of the equine type-II collagen fragment created by mammalian collagenases. This peptide was used to produce a polyclonal antibody, characterized by western analysis for reactivity to native and collagenase-cleaved equine collagens. The antibody was evaluated as an antineoepitope antibody by ELISA, using peptides ± an amino acid at the C-terminus of the immunizing peptide. Collagen cleavage was assayed from equine articular cartilage cultured with interleukin-1 (IL-1), ± a synthetic MMP inhibitor, BAY 12-9566. Cartilage specimens from osteoarthritic and nonarthritic joints were compared for antibody staining.
Results—An antibody, 234CEQ, recognized only collagenase- generated 3/4-length fragments of equine type-II collagen. This was a true antineoepitope antibody, as altering the C-terminus of the immunizing peptide significantly decreased competition for binding in an inhibition ELISA. The IL-1-induced release of type-II collagen fragments from articular cartilage was prevented with the MMP inhibitor. Cartilage from an osteoarthritic joint of a horse had increased staining with the 234CEQ antibody, compared with normal articular cartilage.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—We generated an antineoepitope antibody recognizing collagenase- cleaved type-II collagen of horses. This antibody detects increases in type-II collagen cleavage in diseased equine articular cartilage. The 234CEQ antibody has the potential to aid in the early diagnosis of arthritis and to monitor treatment responses. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1031–1039)
Objective—To determine whether serum concentrations of biomarkers of skeletal metabolism can, in conjunction with radiographic evaluation, indicate severity of osteochondrosis in developing horses.
Animals—43 Dutch Warmblood foals with varying severity of osteochondrosis.
Procedure—24 foals were monitored for 5 months and 19 foals were monitored for 11 months. Monthly radiographs of femoropatellar-femorotibial and tibiotarsal joints were graded for osteochondral abnormalities. Serial blood samples were assayed for 8 cartilage and bone biomarkers. At the end of the monitoring period, foals were examined for macroscopic osteochondrosis lesions.
Results—Temporal relationships were evident between certain serum biomarkers and osteochondrosis severity in foals during their first year. Biomarkers of collagen degradation (collagenasegenerated neoepitopes of type-II collagen fragments, type-I and -II collagen fragments [COL2-3/4Cshort], and cross-linked telopeptide fragments of type-I collagen) and bone mineralization (osteocalcin) were positive indicators of osteochondrosis severity at 5 months of age. In foals with lesions at 11 months of age, osteochondrosis severity correlated negatively with COL2-3/4Cshort and osteocalcin and positively with C-propeptide of type-II procollagen (CPII), a collagen synthesis marker. Radiographic grading of osteochondrosis lesions significantly correlated with macroscopic osteochondrosis severity score at both ages and was strongest when combined with osteocalcin at 5 months and CPII at 11 months.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The ability of serum biomarkers to indicate osteochondrosis severity appears to depend on stage of disease and is strengthened with radiography. In older foals with more permanent lesions, osteochondrosis severity is significantly related to biomarker concentrations of decreased bone formation and increased cartilage synthesis. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:143–150)
Objectives—To determine concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 in synovial fluid; and mRNA expression of MMP-1, -13, and -3; interleukin[ IL]-1α and β; and tumor necrosis factor(TNF)-α in synovial membrane and articular cartilage from horses with naturally occurring joint disease.
Sample Population—Synovial fluid (n = 76), synovial membrane (59), and articular cartilage (45) from 5 clinically normal horses and 55 horses with joint disease categorized as traumatic (acute [AT] or chronic [CT]), osteochondritis dissecans (OCD), or septic (S).
Procedure—Synovial fluid gelatinase concentrations were analyzed, using zymography. Synovial membrane and articular cartilage mRNA expression for MMP-1, -3, and -13, IL-1α and β, TNF-α, type-II collagen, and aggrecan were analyzed, using quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction.
Results—Synovial fluid pro-MMP-2 concentration was significantly higher in diseased joints than normal joints. Septic joints had significantly higher concentrations of pro and active MMP-9. Stromelysin-1 was expressed in ≥ 80% of synovial membrane and articular cartilage samples and was strongly influenced by age. Collagenases were rarely expressed, with MMP- 13 expressed only in diseased joints. Interleukin-1β expression was significantly higher in all OCD samples and was influenced by age. Tumor necrosis factor- α expression was significantly higher in cartilage from joints with AT and OCD. There was no correlation between MMP or cytokines and type-II collagen or aggrecan expression.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Matrix metalloproteinase- 2 and -3 are abundant in naturally occurring joint disease and normal joints. Interleukin-1β and TNF-α may be important in the pathogenesis of OCD. Age affects MMP and IL-1β concentrations. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1467–1477)