Objective—To evaluate the effect of pneumoperitoneum on cardiorespiratory variables and working space during experimental induction of 3 intra-abdominal pressures (IAPs) in cats.
Animals—6 healthy young adult neutered male domestic shorthair cats.
Procedures—All cats were anesthetized through use of a standardized protocol. A catheter was placed in the right femoral artery for blood pressure and blood gas monitoring. A thermodilution catheter was placed in the right jugular vein via fluoroscopic guidance. Cardiopulmonary variables were measured before (baseline) and 2 and 30 minutes after initiation of pneumoperitoneum at IAPs of 4, 8, and 15 mm Hg; these were created through the use of a mechanical insufflator. At each IAP, abdominal dimensions (height, width, and circumference) were measured at a standardized location.
Results—At 4 mm Hg and 8 mm Hg IAP, no clinically important changes were identified in cardiorespiratory values. Heart rate, cardiac index, and stroke volume index remained unchanged throughout the study at all IAPs. Mean arterial blood pressure began to increase at 8 mm Hg and was significantly higher, compared with baseline, at both time points at 15 mm Hg. At 15 mm Hg, Paco2 was significantly higher and cats were more acidotic than at baseline. Working space was subjectively greater at 8 mm Hg than at 4 mm Hg IAP; however, at 15 mm Hg, no clinically important enlargement of the working space was identified, compared with at 8 mm Hg.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Values of cardiopulmonary variables were largely unchanged by induction of pneumoperitoneum in healthy cats up to an IAP of 8 mm Hg, and no clinically important increases in working space were evident at an IAP of 15 versus 8 mm Hg. These findings provide little justification for use of IAPs > 8 mm Hg in healthy cats undergoing laparoscopic procedures; however, whether the situation is similar in diseased or elderly cats remains to be determined.
To determine the optimal intercostal space (ICS) for thoracoscopic-assisted pulmonary surgery for lung lobectomy in cats.
8 cat cadavers.
Cadavers were placed in lateral recumbency. A 5-cm minithoracotomy incision was made in the middle third of ICS 4 through 7 on the left side and 4 through 8 on the right side, and a wound retractor device was placed. A camera port was made in the middle third of ICS 9. Each lung lobe was sequentially exteriorized at each respective ICS. A thoracoabdominal stapler was placed to simulate a lung lobectomy, and distance from the stapler anvil to the hilus was measured.
For the left cranial lung lobe, there was no significant difference in median distance from the stapler anvil to the pulmonary hilus for ICS 4 through 6. Simulated lobectomy of the left caudal lung lobe performed at ICS 5 and 6 resulted in a significantly shorter distance, compared with lobectomy performed at ICS 4 and 7. Simulated lobectomy of the right cranial and right middle lung lobes performed at ICS 4 and 5 resulted in a significantly shorter distance, compared with lobectomy performed at ICS 7. Simulated lobectomy of the accessory and right caudal lung lobes at ICS 5 and 6 resulted in a significantly shorter distance than for lobectomy performed at ICS 8.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
An optimal ICS for a minithoracotomy incision was determined for thoracoscopic-assisted lung lobectomy in cats.
To compare a ventral and a left lateral endoscopic approach to coelioscopy in bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).
18 adult bearded dragons.
In a randomized crossover design involving 2 surgical approaches, anesthetized bearded dragons first underwent coelioscopy with a ventral approach (left lateral of midline next to the umbilicus; animal positioned in dorsal recumbency) or left lateral approach (intercostal; animal positioned in right lateral recumbency) and then with the alternate approach. A 2.7-mm × 18-cm, 30° oblique telescope with a 4.8-mm operating sheath and CO2 insufflation at 2 to 5 mm Hg were used. Ease of entry into the coelom and ease of visual examination of visceral structures were scored.
Both approaches were straightforward, with the left lateral approach requiring significantly more time than the ventral approach. Scores for ease of visual examination for the heart, lungs, liver, stomach, intestines, pancreas, gallbladder, left kidney, gonads, and fat body were good to excellent. Visual examination of the spleen and adrenal glands was difficult in most animals via either approach. The left kidney, testis, and vas deferens were easier to see with the left lateral approach, whereas the pancreas in females and gallbladder in both sexes were easier to see with the ventral approach. All bearded dragons recovered without complications from the procedures, except for one with nephritis, renal gout, and hepatic necrosis.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Both coelioscopy approaches could be safely and effectively used in bearded dragons. Choice of approach should be based on the coelomic structures requiring evaluation.