Objective—To measure the effect of induced myopia on field trial performance in dogs.
Animals—7 Labrador Retrievers and 1 Chesapeake Bay Retriever trained in field trial competition.
Procedures—Dogs were commanded to retrieve targets at 137.2 m (150 yards). Each dog participated in 3 trials while their eyes were fitted with 0- (plano), +1.50-, or +3.00-diopter (D) contact lenses, applied in random order. Retrieval times were measured objectively, and dog performances were evaluated subjectively by masked judges.
Results—Retrieval times were significantly faster with plano lenses than with +1.50- or +3.00-D lenses, but there were no significant differences in times between +1.50- and +3.00-D lenses. Masked judges assigned the best performance scores to dogs with plano lenses and the lowest scores to dogs fitted with +3.00-D lenses.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Even mild myopic defocusing had a significant negative impact on both the subjective and objective assessments of dogs' performances. Dogs with demanding visual tasks or signs of visual deterioration should be evaluated retinoscopically to determine the refractive state because they may have ametropia.
Objective—To determine the effect of feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1) on tear film breakup time (TFBUT) and Schirmer tear test (STT) values in cats with primary experimental infection and to determine the relationship betweenTFBUT and STT values and conjunctival goblet cell density (GCD).
Sample Population—9 specific-pathogen–free cats of approximately 6 months of age.
Procedures—6 cats were inoculated with FHV-1; 3 control cats were sham inoculated. Clinical and histologic evidence of conjunctivitis and TFBUT, GCD, and STT values were assessed at multiple times until postinoculation day (PID) 29.
Results—In infected cats, mean clinical and histologic conjunctivitis scores peaked at PID 7 and remained above baseline at PID 29. In control cats, these 2 variables did not change from baseline throughout the study. MeanTFBUT declined rapidly in infected cats up to PID 15 and at PID 29 remained less than baseline, less than for control cats, and below refer-ence range values. Mean STT value for infected cats at PID 29 was increased from baseline but was within the reference range and not different from the value for control cats. Mean GCD in infected cats declined precipitously by PID 7 and remained below reference range values at PID 29. Mean GCD in control cats remained unchanged for the duration of the study period.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—FHV-1 induced qualitative tear film abnormalities in experimentally infected cats, as measured by TFBUT and GCD. Assessment of TFBUT provided a reasonable clinical estimate of GCD.
Objective—To quantitatively and qualitatively compare electroretinography (ERG) recordings in awake, sedated, and anesthetized dogs.
Animals—Six 6-month-old Beagles.
Procedures—A brief ERG protocol for dogs was used. Following 1-minute and subsequent 5-minute dark adaptation, mixed rod-cone responses were recorded bilaterally with a handheld multispecies ERG device with dogs in each of 3 states of consciousness: awake, sedated (dexmedetomidine and butorphanol), and anesthetized (atropine and hydromorphone, followed by propofol and midazolam and anesthetic maintenance with isoflurane). Low- and high-frequency noise levels were quantified via Fourier analysis, and the effect of consciousness state on signal amplitude, implicit time, and noise was analyzed via repeated-measures ANOVA. In addition, 13 veterinary ophthalmologists who were unaware of the dogs’ consciousness states subjectively graded the ERG recording quality, and scores for each tracing were compared.
Results—ERG amplitudes were highest in awake dogs and lowest in anesthetized dogs. Implicit times were shortest in awake dogs and longest in anesthetized dogs. Differences in b-wave amplitudes and a-wave implicit times were significant. Neither low- nor high-frequency noise levels differed significantly among consciousness states. Furthermore, no significant differences were identified among observers’ scores assigned to ERG tracings.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Anesthesia and sedation resulted in significant attenuation and delay of ERG responses in dogs. Chemical restraint of dogs had no consistently significant effect on low- or high-frequency noise levels or on observer perception of signal quality.
Objective—To measure the dimensions of the eyes of living snakes by use of high-frequency ultrasound imaging and correlate those measurements with age, length, and weight.
Animals—14 clinically normal snakes.
Procedures—Species, age, length, weight, and horizontal spectacle diameter were recorded, and each snake underwent physical and ophthalmic examinations; ultrasonographic examination of both eyes was performed by use of a commercially available ultrasound unit and a 50-MHz transducer. Ultrasonographic measurements included spectacle thickness, subspectacular space depth, corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, vitreous cavity depth, and globe length. All measurements were made along the visual axis.
Results—2 corn snakes, 5 California king snakes, 1 gopher snake, and 6 ball pythons were examined. There were no significant differences within or between the species with regard to mean spectacle thickness, corneal thickness, or subspectacular space depth. However, mean horizontal spectacle diameter, anterior chamber depth, and axial globe length differed among the 4 species; for each measurement, ball pythons had significantly larger values than California king snakes.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Spectacle thickness, subspectacular space depth, and corneal thickness were similar among the species of snake examined and did not vary significantly with age, length, or weight. Measurements of these dimensions can potentially serve as baseline values to evaluate snakes of these species with a retained spectacle, subspectacular abscess, or subspectacular fluid accumulation. Anterior chamber depth and axial length appeared variable among species, but axial length did not vary with age, length, or weight in the species studied.