Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 166 items for

  • Author or Editor: Philip H. Kass x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the present and future supply of veterinarians in California, in light of changing trends in animal ownership.

Design—Database analysis.

Sample Population—Human and animal populations, including populations of veterinarians, throughout the United States.

Procedures—Data on animal and human populations were compiled from a number of sources, including the US Census Bureau, American Veterinary Medical Association, State of California Department of Finance, and State of California Veterinary Medical Board. The distribution of veterinarians in California was contrasted with other health professionals in California and with that of veterinarians in other states. Recent changes in veterinary medical demographics in California were quantified and used to develop in-state projections about the supply of veterinarians for the next 20 years.

Results—Although California is the most populous of the 50 states, only 7 states had fewer veterinarians per capita. Furthermore, California ranked next to last among states in increase of number of veterinarians between 1990 and 1995. Los Angeles County had the smallest per-capita number of veterinarians among 9 populous California counties. During that period, California had a net gain of only 6 veterinarians who were exclusively or predominantly large-animal or mixed-animal practitioners.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—If current trends continue, the per-capita number of veterinarians will continue to decrease in California. To maintain the current ratio of 17.8 veterinarians/100,000 people in California in the future, we estimate that an additional 50 veterinarians above the currently predicted increase will be required annually. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:1753–1757)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To examine the effects of orally administered L-lysine on clinical signs of feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1) infection and ocular shedding of FHV-1 in latently infected cats.

Animals—14 young adult, FHV-1-naive cats.

Procedure—Five months after primary conjunctival inoculation with FHV-1, cats were rehoused and assigned to receive 400 mg of L-lysine in food once daily for 30 days or food only. On day 15, all cats received methylprednisolone to induce viral reactivation. Clinical signs of infection were graded, and viral shedding was assessed by a polymerase chain reaction assay throughout our study. Peak and trough plasma amino acid concentrations were assessed on day 30.

Results—Fewer cats and eyes were affected by conjunctivitis, and onset of clinical signs of infection was delayed on average by 7 days in cats receiving L-lysine, compared with cats in the control group; however, significant differences between groups were not demonstrated. Significantly fewer viral shedding episodes were identified in the treatment group cats, compared with the control group cats, after rehousing but not following corticosteroidinduced viral reactivation. Mean plasma L-lysine concentration was significantly increased at 3 hours but not at 24 hours after L-lysine administration. Plasma arginine concentration was not significantly altered.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Once daily oral administration of 400 mg of L-lysine to cats latently infected with FHV-1 was associated with reduced viral shedding following changes in housing and husbandry but not following corticosteroid administration. This dose caused a significant but short-term increase in plasma L-lysine concentration without altering plasma arginine concentration or inducing adverse clinical effects. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:37–42)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the prevalence of tooth resorption in dogs and to evaluate whether a classification system for tooth resorption in humans is applicable in this species.

Animals—224 dogs > 1 year old admitted for periodontal treatment or other dental procedures in 2007

Procedures—Full-mouth radiographs of all dogs were reviewed for evidence of tooth resorption. Tooth resorption was classified in accordance with radiographic criteria described for use in humans. Patient signalment and concurrent dental conditions were recorded and tabulated.

Results—Tooth resorption was detected in 120 of 224 (53.6%) dogs and 943 of 8,478 (11.1%) teeth. The classification system for use in humans was applicable in 908 of 943 (96.3%) affected teeth. Tooth resorption was more frequent among older and large-breed dogs; no significant differences were found among sex categories. The 2 most common types of tooth resorption were external replacement resorption (77/224 [34.4%] dogs and 736/8,478 [8.7%] teeth) and external inflammatory resorption (58/224 [25.9%] dogs and 121/8,478 [1.4%] teeth). External cervical root surface resorption was detected in 13 of 224 (5.8%) dogs; external surface resorption was detected in 10 of 224 (4.5%) dogs, and internal inflammatory resorption and internal surface resorption were detected in 9 of 224 (4.0%) and 1 of 224 (0.4%) dogs, respectively. Internal replacement resorption was not detected.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The classification of tooth resorption in humans was applicable to tooth resorption in dogs. Resorption lesions, in general, and external replacement and external inflammatory resorption, in particular, were frequently detected in dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine applicability of the 2007 American Veterinary Dental College (AVDC) classification method for determining extent of tooth resorption in dogs.

Animals—224 dogs > 1 year old admitted for periodontal treatment or other dental procedures in 2007.

Procedures—Full-mouth radiographs of all dogs were reviewed for evidence of tooth resorption. Tooth resorption in dogs was classified in accordance with the radiographic criteria described for use in human teeth and, when applicable, the guidelines described in the 2007 AVDC classification method.

Results—851 of 943 (90.2%) affected teeth met the radiographic characteristics of 1 of the 5 stages of tooth resorption described by the AVDC classification method. Among tooth resorption types described for human teeth, the AVDC classification method was totally applicable (100%) in 17 teeth with external surface resorption, 21 teeth with external replacement resorption, and 736 teeth with external cervical root surface resorption, but it was applicable in only 56 of 121 (46.3%) teeth with external inflammatory resorption and none of the teeth with internal resorption.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The AVDC classification method was useful to describe the extent of tooth resorption in dogs, but it did not reflect the radiographic patterns and location of lesions. The AVDC classification method was applicable in some, but not all, of the teeth with various resorption types in dogs. The AVDC classification method could be adapted best to lesions that have radiographic patterns of external replacement resorption and external cervical root surface resorption.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To quantify incidence of vaccination practices, postvaccinal reactions, and vaccine site-associated sarcomas in cats.

Design—Epidemiologic survey.

Animals—31,671 cats vaccinated in the United States and Canada by veterinarians with World Wide Web access.

Procedure—Veterinarians used secure Web-based survey forms to report data regarding administered vaccines, postvaccinal inflammatory reactions, vaccine site-associated sarcomas, and detailed information and history on each sarcoma. Data were collected from Jan 1, 1998 to Dec 31, 2000, allowing a 1- to 3-year follow-up of vaccinated cats.

Results—Participants reported administering 61,747 doses of vaccine to 31,671 cats; postvaccinal inflammatory reactions developed in 73 cats (11.8 reactions/ 10,000 vaccine doses), and qualifying vaccine site-associated sarcomas developed in 2 cats (0.63 sarcomas/10,000 cats; 0.32 sarcomas/10,000 doses of all vaccines).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These findings indicate that the incidence of vaccine site-associated sarcomas is low and is not increasing. Thoughtful consideration of the relative risks and benefits of specific vaccines remains the best means of reducing the incidence of sarcomas. It is not necessary to remove postvaccinal granulomas unless malignant behavior is apparent or they persist > 4 months. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:1477–1482)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine small animal veterinarians’ opinions and actions regarding costs of care, obstacles to client education about veterinary care costs, and effects of economic limitations on patient care and outcome and professional career satisfaction and burnout.

DESIGN Cross-sectional survey.

SAMPLE 1,122 small animal practitioners in the United States and Canada.

PROCEDURES An online survey was sent to 37,036 veterinarians. Respondents provided information regarding perceived effects of client awareness of costs and pet health insurance coverage on various aspects of practice, the influence of client economic limitations on professional satisfaction and burnout, and proposals for addressing those effects.

RESULTS The majority (620/1,088 [57%]) of respondents indicated that client economic limitations affected their ability to provide the desired care for their patients on a daily basis. Approximately half (527/1,071 [49%]) of respondents reported a moderate-to-substantial level of burnout, and many cited client economic limitations as an important contributing factor to burnout. Only 31% and 23% of respondents routinely discussed veterinary costs and pet insurance, respectively, with clients before pets became ill, and lack of time was cited as a reason for forgoing those discussions. Most respondents felt improved client awareness of veterinary costs and pet health insurance would positively affect patient care and client and veterinarian satisfaction.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested most small animal practitioners believe the veterinary profession needs to take action at educational and organizational levels to inform pet owners and educate and train veterinary students and veterinarians about the costs of veterinary care.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine reference values, intertest correlations, and test-retest repeatability of Schirmer tear test 1 (STT-1), phenol red thread test (PRTT), tear film breakup time (TFBUT), tear osmolarity, and meibometry in healthy cats.

Design—Evaluation study.

Animals—135 healthy domestic cats aged 0.5 to 12.8 years.

Procedures—Each test was performed once in 120 cats and repeated in 40. Pearson correlation was used to assess correlation among tests. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and 95% limits of agreement (LOA) were used to evaluate test-retest repeatability.

Results—Median (95% central range) values were 18 mm/min (9 to 34 mm/min) for STT-1, 29 mm/15 s (15 to 37 mm/15 s) for PRTT, 12.4 seconds (9.1 to 17.7 seconds) for TFBUT, 322 mOsm/L (297 to 364 mOsm/L) for osmolarity, and 32 meibometry units (MU; 11 to 114 MU) for peak meibometry value. The STT-1 and PRTT values were positively correlated. Age was weakly associated with TFBUT and osmolarity. Meibometry measurements were higher for strips that contacted the tear film (285 MU) than for those that touched the eyelid margin only (32 MU). All ICCs were < 0.75, and 95% LOA were wide.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Tear deficiency should be suspected in cats with STT-1 < 9 mm/min, PRTT < 15 mm/15 s, or TFBUT < 9 to 10 seconds. Generally poor correlation among tests suggested that thorough tear film analysis requires performance of multiple tests in concert. Relatively poor test-retest repeatability should be considered when repeated tests are used to monitor tear film dysfunction and response to treatment.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine prevalence of initial clinical signs and risk factors for acquired myasthenia gravis (MG) in cats.

Design—Retrospective case-control study.

Animals—105 cats from the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom with a confirmed diagnosis of acquired MG and 510 cats with other neuromuscular disorders, including generalized weakness, megaesophagus, and dysphagia (control group).

Procedures—Records were retrieved from a database containing results of serum samples tested for acetylcholine receptor antibodies. Signalment, including breed, age, and state or country of origin, month of onset, and initial clinical signs were obtained. An acetylcholine receptor antibody titer > 0.3 nmol/L was diagnostic for acquired MG. Unconditional logistic regression was used for statistical analysis.

Results—Compared with mixed-breed cats, the breed with the highest relative risk of acquired MG was the Abyssinian (including Somali). Significant differences between sexes were not detected. There was no compelling evidence for a difference in risk of developing MG between states or countries. Relative risk increased after 3 years of age. The most common clinical signs were generalized weakness without megaesophagus and weakness associated with a cranial mediastinal mass. Focal signs, including megaesophagus and dysphagia without signs of generalized weakness, were also evident.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A breed predisposition for acquired MG in Abyssinians (and related Somalis) was observed. Clinical signs were variable and included generalized weakness, megaesophagus, and dysphagia. A cranial mediastinal mass was commonly associated with MG in cats. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:55–57)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine frequency of initial clinical signs and risk factors for acquired myasthenia gravis (MG) in dogs.

Design

Retrospective study.

Sample Population

1,154 dogs residing within the United States from 1991 to 1995 with a confirmed diagnosis of acquired MG and 7,176 dogs with other neuromuscular disorders, including generalized weakness, megaesophagus, and dysphagia (control group).

Procedure

Records were retrieved from a database containing results of serum samples tested for acetylcholine receptor antibodies. Signalment, breed, age, state of origin, and month of onset of clinical signs were obtained. An antibody titer > 0.6 nmol/L was diagnostic for acquired MG. Unconditional logistic regression was used for statistical analysis.

Results

In comparison with mixed-breed dogs, dogs with the highest risk of acquired MG were Akitas, terrier group, Scottish Terriers, German Shorthaired Pointers, and Chihuahuas. Rottweilers, Doberman Pinschers, Dalmatians, and Jack Russell Terriers had low relative risks. Sexually intact males and dogs less than 1 year old had some protection from risk. Generalized weakness with megaesophagus and megaesophagus alone were the most common initial clinical signs.

Clinical Implications

Breed predispositions for acquired MG were demonstrated. Age and sex were contributing factors. Although most dogs had generalized clinical signs, a substantial proportion of dogs had focal signs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:1428–1431)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association