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Objective

To determine clinical signs, radiographic findings, results of surgical management, and potential causes of aseptic loosening of the femoral implant (ALFI) in dogs that have undergone cemented total hip arthroplasty (THA).

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

11 cases of ALFI in 10 dogs.

Procedure

Medical records of all dogs undergoing THA revision surgery were reviewed. Only dogs with ALFI were included. The prosthesis and cement were removed by creating a longitudinal osteotomy of the cranial femoral cortex. Postoperative radiographs of all dogs that underwent THA during the study period were reviewed.

Results

The most common clinical sign was intermittent, subtle, or non–weight-bearing lameness. On radiographs obtained after THA, contact of the distal stem tip with cortical endosteum was evident in all dogs. Radiographic changes at the time of diagnosis of ALFI included asymmetric periosteal reaction along the femoral diaphysis, radiolucent lines between the prosthesis and cement, altered implant position, and femoral fracture. Surgical revision yielded good or excellent results in 9 cases. In 1 dog, the implant became infected; in another, aseptic loosening recurred. Aseptic loosening was significantly more common in dogs in which there was contact between the distal stem tip and cortical endosteum than in dogs in which there was no contact.

Clinical Implications

ALFI is an uncommon, but important, complication of THA, and radiography is warranted in dogs with clinical signs of ALFI. Initial centering of the prosthetic stem within the femoral shaft may reduce the incidence of ALFI. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:580–586)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate owners' perceptions of the outcomes of dogs that have undergone total hip arthroplasty (THA).

Design—Survey.

Sample Population—Owners of 145 dogs that had undergone THA.

Procedure—Surveys were mailed to owners of 353 dogs that underwent THA between 1982 and 1996. Owners were asked to answer multiple-choice questions and provide written comments.

Results—The response rate was 41%. For owners who responded to the survey, time from surgery to completion of the questionnaire ranged from 6 months to 11 years. Overall, 122 respondents (84.1%) rated results of THA in their dog as excellent or good.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that owners are generally satisfied with the results of THA in their dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:1010–1012)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Thirty cubital joints from 16 dogs suspected of having a fragmented medial coronoid process were examined. Four breeds accounted for 87.5% of the cases: German Shepherd Dog (25%), Labrador Retriever (25%), Rottweiler (18.75%), and Golden Retriever (18.75%). Seventy-five percent of the dogs were male. Mean age of affected dogs was 13.6 months. Plain-film radiography, xeroradiography, linear tomography, arthrography, and computed tomography were performed on each cubital joint prior to surgical exploration of the joint. Three reviewers evaluated each diagnostic study and independently determined whether a fragment from the medial coronoid process could be seen. The consensus opinion was compared with the finding at surgery. Abnormalities of the medial coronoid process were detected in 25 of 30 joints at surgery. Fragmented coronoid process was found in 17 of 30 joints, and wear lesions were observed in 8 of 30 joints. Computed tomography had the highest accuracy (86.7%), sensitivity (88.2%), and negative-predictive value (84.6%) of the 5 imaging modalities evaluated (P < 0.05). Specificity and positive-predictive value of all imaging techniques were high. There was no significant difference between the diagnostic ability of plain-film radiography, xeroradiography, or linear tomography of the cubital joint. The combination of plain-film radiography and linear tomography provided an improvement in accuracy, approaching that of computed tomography.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

A technique for arthrography of the cubital joint in clinically normal large-breed dogs was developed with the objective of improving visualization of the articular margin of the medial coronoid process. A lateral approach to the cubital joint for injection of contrast medium was selected. Arthrography of 24 cubital joints was performed by using 14 dogs. Twelve combinations of iodinated contrast medium, consisting of various concentrations (3) and volumes (4), were used. Two sets of arthrograms for each of the 12 combinations of contrast medium were obtained. Five radiographic views were used for each set.

All arthrograms were examined by 3 evaluators, and each articular surface received a numerical rating for how well it could be seen in each view. Results of the evaluation indicated that low volumes of contrast medium were preferable to high volumes, with 2 ml providing the best visualization. Concentration of iodine seemed less important than did volume.

The numerical ratings also indicated that the articular margin of the coronoid process was clearly observed a maximum of only 24% of the time on a slightly supinated mediolateral projection. The articular margins of the head of the radius, trochlea humeri, and trochlear notch were well visualized > 90% of the time.

Arthrography of the cubital joint was technically easy to perform, and complications were not encountered, but arthrographic anatomy of the cubital joint is complex. Potential uses for arthrography of the cubital joint include diagnosis of osteochondrosis, intraarticular fragments, and joint capsule ruptures.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association