To determine the prevalence of and covariates associated with the oculocardiac reflex (OCR) occurring in dogs during enucleations.
145 dogs that underwent enucleation at 2 veterinary teaching hospitals between January 2010 and June 2015.
Information was collected from the medical records of included dogs regarding age and body weight at hospital admission, breed (for classification of brachycephalic status), and whether they had received anticholinergic drugs or a retrobulbar nerve block (RNB) prior to enucleation. An OCR was considered to have occurred if there was a sudden decrease of ≥ 30% in heart rate from the baseline value (mean heart rate prior to the sudden decrease) during surgery in the absence of intraoperative administration of opioids or α2-adrenoceptor agonists. Associations were explored between the collected data and the prevalence of OCR by means of binomial logistic regression.
4.8% (7/145) of dogs had an OCR noted during enucleation. Dogs that received a preoperative RNB (n = 82) had significantly lower odds of an OCR being observed than dogs that received no preoperative RNB (OR, 0.12). No association with OCR was identified for age or brachycephalic conformation or for preoperative administration of anticholinergic drugs.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
These findings suggested that preoperative administration of an RNB, but not preoperative administration of anticholinergic drugs, was associated with a lower prevalence of OCR in dogs during enucleations.
Procedures—Cats were premedicated with acepromazine and morphine; anesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with isoflurane. Cats were given constant rate infusions of remifentanil (20 μg/kg/h [9 μg/lb/h], IV; n = 8), remifentanil and ketamine (0.5 mg/kg [0.23 mg/lb], then 1.8 mg/kg/h [0.82 mg/lb/h], IV; 7), or crystalloid fluids (8). The anesthesiologist was blinded to treatment group, end-tidal isoflurane concentration, and vaporizer setting. Heart rate, systolic arterial blood pressure, respiratory rate, end-tidal partial pressure of CO2, temperature, and end-tidal isoflurane concentration were monitored; recovery scores were assigned.
Results—There were no significant differences among treatment groups with respect to age, body weight, surgery time, anesthesia time, time to extubation, recovery score, or cardiorespiratory variables. End-tidal isoflurane concentration was significantly reduced in cats given remifentanil and ketamine (mean ± SD, 0.63 ± 0.4%), compared with concentration in cats given crystalloid fluids (1.22 ± 0.5%) but not compared with concentration in cats given remifentanil alone (1.03 ± 0.4%). Compared with cats given crystalloid fluids, mean isoflurane requirement was reduced by 48.3% in cats given remifentanil-ketamine and 15.6% in cats given remifentanil alone.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—At the dosages administered, a constant rate infusion of remifentanil-ketamine resulted in a significant decrease in the isoflurane requirement in healthy cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy. However, significant differences in cardiovascular variables were not observed among treatment groups.
Objective—To evaluate the antinociceptive effects of epidurally administered hydromorphone in conscious, healthy cats.
Animals—7 healthy adult cats.
Procedures—An epidural catheter was implanted in each cat. Thermal threshold (TT) was measured by increasing the temperature of a probe placed on the thorax and monitoring the cat's response. Mechanical threshold (MT) was measured by manually inflating a modified blood-pressure bladder affixed to a thoracic limb and monitoring the response. After the baseline TT and MT values were determined, hydromorphone (0.05 mg/kg) or an equal volume of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution was epidurally injected. The TT and MT were again measured at 15, 30, 45, 60, 120, 180, 240, 300, 360, and 480 minutes after injection.
Results—TT and MT did not change significantly from baseline values at any point after saline solution was administered. The MT and TT values were significantly higher than the baseline value at 15 minutes and at 120 and 180 minutes after hydromorphone administration, respectively. The MT and TT values after hydromorphone administration were also significantly different from those obtained at 30 minutes and at 15 minutes and 120 to 300 minutes, respectively, after administration of saline solution. No significant changes in skin temperature were detected after either treatment.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Epidural administration of hydromorphone at a dosage of 0.05 mg/kg yielded thermal and some mechanical antinociceptive effects in cats, and no hyperthermia was detected. Additional studies of the antinociceptive effectiveness and duration of epidurally administered hydromorphone in clinical situations are required.
Objective—To evaluate the isoflurane-sparing effects of lidocaine and fentanyl administered by constant rate infusion (CRI) during surgery in dogs.
Design—Randomized prospective study.
Animals—24 female dogs undergoing unilateral mastectomy because of mammary neoplasia.
Procedures—After premedication with acepromazine and morphine and anesthetic induction with ketamine and diazepam, anesthesia in dogs (n = 8/group) was maintained with isoflurane combined with either saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (control), lidocaine (1.5 mg/kg [0.68 mg/lb], IV bolus, followed by 250 μg/kg/min [113 μg/lb/min], CRI), or fentanyl (5 μg/kg [2.27 μg/lb], IV bolus, followed by 0.5 μg/kg/min [0.23 μg/lb/min], CRI). Positive-pressure ventilation was used to maintain eucapnia. An anesthetist unaware of treatment, endtidal isoflurane (ETiso) concentration, and vaporizer concentrations adjusted a nonprecision vaporizer to maintain surgical depth of anesthesia. Cardiopulmonary variables and ETiso values were monitored before and after beginning surgery.
Results—Heart rate was lower in the fentanyl group. Mean arterial pressure did not differ among groups after surgery commenced. In the control group, mean ± SD ETiso values ranged from 1.16 ± 0.35% to 1.94 ± 0.96%. Fentanyl significantly reduced isoflurane requirements during surgical stimulation by 54% to 66%, whereas the reduction in ETiso concentration (34% to 44%) observed in the lidocaine group was not significant.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of fentanyl resulted in greater isoflurane sparing effect than did lidocaine. However, it appeared that the low heart rate induced by fentanyl may partially offset the improvement in mean arterial pressure that would be expected with reduced isoflurane requirements.
Objective—To evaluate adverse effects of long-term oral administration of carprofen, etodolac, flunixin meglumine, ketoprofen, and meloxicam in dogs.
Animals—36 adult dogs.
Procedures—Values for CBC, urinalysis, serum biochemical urinalyses, and occult blood in feces were investigated before and 7, 30, 60, and 90 days after daily oral administration (n = 6 dogs/group) of lactose (1 mg/kg, control treatment), etodolac (15 mg/kg), meloxicam (0.1 mg/kg), carprofen (4 mg/kg), and ketoprofen (2 mg/kg for 4 days, followed by 1 mg/kg daily thereafter) or flunixin (1 mg/kg for 3 days, with 4-day intervals). Gastroscopy was performed before and after the end of treatment.
Results—For serum γ-glutamyltransferase activity, values were significantly increased at day 30 in dogs treated with lactose, etodolac, and meloxicam within groups. Bleeding time was significantly increased in dogs treated with carprofen at 30 and 90 days, compared with baseline. At 7 days, bleeding time was significantly longer in dogs treated with meloxicam, ketoprofen, and flunixin, compared with control dogs. Clotting time increased significantly in all groups except those treated with etodolac. At day 90, clotting time was significantly shorter in flunixin-treated dogs, compared with lactose-treated dogs. Gastric lesions were detected in all dogs treated with etodolac, ketoprofen, and flunixin, and 1 of 6 treated with carprofen.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Carprofen induced the lowest frequency of gastrointestinal adverse effects, followed by meloxicam. Monitoring for adverse effects should be considered when nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are used to treat dogs with chronic pain.
Objective—To evaluate the effects of 2 remifentanil infusion regimens on cardiovascular function and responses to nociceptive stimulation in propofol-anesthetized cats.
Animals—8 adult cats.
Procedures—On 2 occasions, cats received acepromazine followed by propofol (6 mg/kg then 0.3 mg/kg/min, IV) and a constant rate infusion (CRI) of remifentanil (0.2 or 0.3 μg/kg/ min, IV) for 90 minutes and underwent mechanical ventilation (phase I). After recording physiologic variables, an electrical stimulus (50 V; 50 Hz; 10 milliseconds) was applied to a forelimb to assess motor responses to nociceptive stimulation. After an interval (≥ 10 days), the same cats were anesthetized via administration of acepromazine and a similar infusion regimen of propofol; the remifentanil infusion rate adjustments that were required to inhibit cardiovascular responses to ovariohysterectomy were recorded (phase II).
Results—In phase I, heart rate and arterial pressure did not differ between remifentanil- treated groups. From 30 to 90 minutes, cats receiving 0.3 μg of remifentanil/kg/min had no response to noxious stimulation. Purposeful movement was detected more frequently in cats receiving 0.2 μg of remifentanil/kg/min. In phase II, the highest dosage (mean ± SEM) of remifentanil that prevented cardiovascular responses was 0.23 ± 0.01 μg/kg/min. For all experiments, mean time from infusion cessation until standing ranged from 115 to 140 minutes.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although the lower infusion rate of remifentanil allowed ovariohysterectomy to be performed, a CRI of 0.3 μg/kg/min was necessary to prevent motor response to electrical stimulation in propofol-anesthetized cats. Recovery from anesthesia was prolonged with this technique.
Objective—To evaluate the effects of increasing doses of remifentanil hydrochloride administered via constant rate infusion (CRI) on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane in cats.
Animals—6 healthy adult cats.
Procedures—For each cat, 2 experiments were performed (2-week interval). On each study day, anesthesia was induced and maintained with isoflurane; a catheter was placed in a cephalic vein for the administration of lactated Ringer's solution or remifentanil CRIs, and a catheter was placed in the jugular vein for collection of blood samples for blood gas analyses. On the first study day, individual basal MAC (MACBasal) was determined for each cat. On the second study day, 3 remifentanil CRIs (0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 μg/kg/min) were administered (in ascending order); for each infusion, at least 30 minutes elapsed before determination of MAC (designated as MACR0.25, MACR0.5, and MACR1.0, respectively). A 15-minute washout period was allowed between CRIs. A control MAC (MACControl) was determined after the last remifentanil infusion.
Results—Mean ± SD MACBasal and MACControl values at sea level did not differ significantly (1.66 ± 0.08% and 1.52 ± 0.21%, respectively). The MAC values determined for each remifentanil CRI did not differ significantly. However, MACR0.25, MACR0.5, and MACR1.0 were significantly decreased, compared with MACBasal, by 23.4 ± 7.9%, 29.8 ± 8.3%, and 26.0 ± 9.4%, respectively.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The 3 doses of remifentanil administered via CRI resulted in a similar degree of isoflurane MAC reduction in adult cats, indicating that a ceiling effect was achieved following administration of the lowest dose.
Objective—To evaluate the thermal antinociceptive effects and duration of action of nalbuphine decanoate after IM administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).
Animals—10 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots of unknown sex.
Procedures—Nalbuphine decanoate (33.7 mg/kg) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution was administered IM in a randomized complete crossover experimental design (periods 1 and 2). Foot withdrawal threshold to a noxious thermal stimulus was used to evaluate responses. Baseline thermal withdrawal threshold was recorded 1 hour before drug or saline solution administration, and thermal foot withdrawal threshold measurements were repeated 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after drug administration.
Results—Nalbuphine decanoate administered IM at a dose of 33.7 mg/kg significantly increased thermal foot withdrawal threshold, compared with results after administration of saline solution during period 2, and also caused a significant change in withdrawal threshold for up to 12 hours, compared with baseline values.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Nalbuphine decanoate increased the foot withdrawal threshold to a noxious thermal stimulus in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots for up to 12 hours and provided a longer duration of action than has been reported for other nalbuphine formulations. Further studies with other types of nociceptive stimulation, dosages, and dosing intervals as well as clinical trials are needed to fully evaluate the analgesic effects of nalbuphine decanoate in psittacine birds.