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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To assess the use of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for identifying subchondral bone damage in the distal limbs of horses.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—11 horses.

Procedure—Medical records of horses with lameness and subsequent evidence of subchondral bone damage as determined by MR imaging were reviewed. Severity and duration of lameness, results of diagnostic local anesthesia and diagnostic testing, surgical and necropsy findings, and treatment were recorded. Outcome was determined by follow-up information obtained from the owner or referring veterinarian.

Results—Lameness was localized by physical examination and diagnostic local anesthesia. Lameness was localized to the metacarpophalangeal or metatarsophalangeal joint in 4 horses, distal interphalangeal joint in 5 horses, and tarsocrural joint in 2 horses. The duration of lameness ranged from 2 weeks to 20 months. Magnetic resonance imaging of the affected joints revealed abnormal fluid accumulation within the subchondral bone. None of the abnormalities observed by MR imaging were detected by radiography. Subchondral bone damage was diagnosed in all horses. Arthroscopy of the affected joint was performed in 4 horses. Communication with the articular surface of the affected bone was suspected on the basis of results of MR imaging in 4 horses and was confirmed by arthroscopy in 1 horse and by necropsy in 1 horse.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Magnetic resonance imaging was useful for providing a diagnosis when other imaging techniques did not definitively identify the cause of lameness. Subchondral bone damage was clearly identified by MR imaging and should be considered as a cause of lameness in horses in which radiographic findings are unremarkable. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:411–418)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Case Description—A 4-year-old Quarter Horse stallion was evaluated because of a 10-month history of moderate (grade 3/5) left forelimb lameness (detectable during trotting over a smooth, hard surface).

Clinical Findings—No abnormalities were detected in either forelimb via palpation or application of hoof testers; however, lameness was eliminated after administration of a palmar digital nerve block in the left forelimb. Whereas radiography and ultrasonography did not identify any left forelimb foot abnormalities, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed a circumscribed soft tissue mass in the distal aspect of the digital flexor tendon sheath (DFTS) dorsal to the lateral aspect of the deep digital flexor tendon. Subsequently, the left forelimb DFTS was injected with local anesthetic, which resulted in 90% improvement of the horse's lameness.

Treatment and Outcome—The distal aspect of the left forelimb DFTS was evaluated tenoscopically. The mass was removed under tenoscopic guidance, after which the distal digital annular ligament was transected. The horse received phenylbutazone orally for 10 days, and the left forelimb DFTS was injected with hyaluronic acid and methylprednisolone acetate 7 days after the surgery. Following a rehabilitation program, the horse was returned to full training at 6 months after surgery and competed successfully during a 2-year follow-up period.

Clinical Relevance—Use of MR imaging should be considered in all lame horses for which a definitive diagnosis cannot be made via radiography, ultrasonography, or other imaging techniques, especially when the lameness has been localized to a specific anatomic region by use of diagnostic anesthesia.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


To determine the prevalence of various clinical signs in dogs with brain tumors.


Retrospective study.


97 dogs with brain tumors.


Medical records were reviewed for signalment, tumor type and location, and clinical signs.


33 breeds were represented; Golden Retrievers were most commonly affected. Most dogs were older (median age, 9 years); 95% of dogs were ≥ 5 years old. Seventy-six percent of dogs had tumors in the supratentorial region. Seizures were the most common clinical sign at initial examination, with lower prevalence for circling, ataxia, and head tilt. Meningioma was the most common tumor.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Brain tumors develop most often in dogs ≥ 5 years old and are uncommon in dogs < 5 years old. Seizures are a common clinical sign, and a brain tumor should be considered in dogs that have their first seizure after they are 4 years old. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:818–819)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association