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- Author or Editor: Nozomu Yokoyama x
- Cardiovascular System x
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OBJECTIVE To elucidate the relationship between acute volume overload and left atrial phasic function in healthy dogs.
ANIMALS 6 healthy Beagles.
PROCEDURES Dogs were anesthetized. A Swan-Ganz catheter was placed to measure mean pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP). Cardiac preload was increased by IV infusion with lactated Ringer solution at 150 mL/kg/h for 90 minutes. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed before (baseline) and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 minutes after volume loading began. At each echocardiographic assessment point, apical 4-chamber images were recorded and analyzed to derive time–left atrial area curves. Left atrial total (for reservoir function), passive (for conduit function), and active (for booster-pump function) fractional area changes were calculated from the curves.
RESULTS Volume overload resulted in a significant increase from baseline in PCWP from 15 to 90 minutes after volume loading began. All fractional area changes at 15 to 90 minutes were significantly increased from baseline. In multiple regression analysis, quadratic regression models were better fitted to the relationships between PCWP and each of the total and active fractional area changes than were linear regression models. A linear regression model was better fitted to the relationship between PCWP and passive fractional area change.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that left atrial phasic function assessed on the basis of left atrial phasic areas was enhanced during experimental cardiac volume loading in healthy dogs. The effect of volume load should be considered when evaluating left atrial phasic function by indices derived from left atrial phasic sizes.
OBJECTIVE To determine the relationship between acute volume overload and echocardiographic indices of right ventricular (RV) function and dyssynchrony in healthy dogs.
ANIMALS 7 healthy Beagles.
PROCEDURES Right heart catheterization and echocardiography were performed in 7 healthy anesthetized Beagles at baseline and after induction of volume overload. Volume overload was induced by IV infusion of lactated Ringer solution (150 mL/kg/h for 90 minutes). Echocardiographic indices of RV function, including peak velocity of systolic tricuspid annular motion, tricuspid annulus plane systolic excursion, fractional area change, RV Tei index, RV longitudinal strain (RVLS), and systolic RV longitudinal strain rate (RVLSR), were obtained by use of speckle tracking echocardiography (STE). In addition, SD of the systolic shortening time of the right ventricle for the 6 segments (RV-SD6) was determined with STE.
RESULTS Volume overload significantly increased the RV end-diastolic pressure, compared with the baseline value. Echocardiographic indices of RV function, except for septal RVLSR, were significantly enhanced by volume overload. In contrast, RV-SD6 did not change with volume overload. Although echocardiographic indices of RV function, except for septal RVLSR, were correlated with RV end-diastolic pressure, RV-SD6 was not correlated.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Echocardiographic indices of RV function, including RVLS and RVLSR, were affected by acute short-term volume overload. Therefore, results for assessment of RV function by use of STE in dogs with clinical conditions associated with right-sided chronic volume overload, such as tricuspid and pulmonic regurgitation, should be interpreted with caution.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of dobutamine, esmolol, milrinone, and phenylephrine on left atrial phasic function of healthy dogs.
ANIMALS 9 healthy Beagles.
PROCEDURES Following sedation with propofol on each of 4 experimental days, dogs were administered a constant rate infusion of dobutamine (5 μg/kg/min), esmolol (500 μg/kg/min), milrinone (25 μg/kg, IV bolus, followed by 0.5 μg/kg/min), or phenylephrine (2 μg/kg/min). There was at least a 14-day interval between experimental days. Each drug was administered to 6 dogs. Conventional and 2-D speckle tracking echocardiography were performed before (baseline) and after administration of the cardiovascular drug, and time–left atrial area curves were derived to calculate indices for left atrial reservoir, conduit, and booster pump functions (left atrial phasic function) and left ventricular contractility and lusitropy.
RESULTS Compared with baseline values, indices for left atrial reservoir and booster pump functions and left ventricular contractility and lusitropy were significantly increased following dobutamine administration; indices for left atrial phasic function and left ventricular lusitropy were changed insignificantly, and indices for left ventricular contractility were significantly impaired following esmolol administration; indices for left atrial phasic function and left ventricular relaxation were changed insignificantly, and indices for left ventricular systolic function were significantly augmented following milrinone administration; and indices for left atrial phasic function and left ventricular lusitropy were changed insignificantly, and indices of ventricular contractility were significantly impaired following phenylephrine administration.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that, following administration of dobutamine, esmolol, milrinone, or phenylephrine to healthy dogs, left atrial phasic function indices were fairly stable and did not parallel changes in left ventricular function indices.