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Abstract

Objective—To determine the disposition of a bolus of meloxicam (administered IV) in horses and donkeys (Equus asinus) and compare the relative pharmacokinetic variables between the species.

Animals—5 clinically normal horses and 5 clinically normal donkeys.

Procedures—Blood samples were collected before and after IV administration of a bolus of meloxicam (0.6 mg/kg). Serum meloxicam concentrations were determined in triplicate via high-performance liquid chromatography. The serum concentration-time curve for each horse and donkey was analyzed separately to estimate standard noncompartmental pharmacokinetic variables.

Results—In horses and donkeys, mean ± SD area under the curve was 18.8 ± 7.31 μg/mL/h and 4.6 ± 2.55 μg/mL/h, respectively; mean residence time (MRT) was 9.6 ± 9.24 hours and 0.6 ± 0.36 hours, respectively. Total body clearance (CLT) was 34.7 ± 9.21 mL/kg/h in horses and 187.9 ± 147.26 mL/kg/h in donkeys. Volume of distribution at steady state (VDSS) was 270 ± 160.5 mL/kg in horses and 93.2 ± 33.74 mL/kg in donkeys. All values, except VDSS, were significantly different between donkeys and horses.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The small VDSS of meloxicam in horses and donkeys (attributed to high protein binding) was similar to values determined for other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Compared with other species, horses had a much shorter MRT and greater CLT for meloxicam, indicating a rapid elimination of the drug from plasma; the even shorter MRT and greater CLT of meloxicam in donkeys, compared with horses, may make the use of the drug in this species impractical.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To compare plasma disposition of phenylbutazone and its metabolite oxyphenbutazone after IV administration of phenylbutazone in horses and donkeys.

Animals

4 clinically normal horses and 6 clinically normal donkeys.

Procedure

Blood samples were collected from each animal at time 0 (before) and 5, 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, 300, 360, and 480 minutes after IV administration of a bolus dose of phenylbutazone. Serum was analyzed in triplicate by use of high-performance liquid chromatography for determination of phenylbutazone and oxyphenbutazone concentrations. The serum concentration-time curve for each horse and donkey was analyzed separately to estimate model-independent pharmacokinetic variables.

Results

Significant differences were found in several pharmacokinetic variables of phenylbutazone and oxyphenbutazone in horses, compared with donkeys. Mean total body clearance of phenylbutazone in horses was fivefold less than that in donkeys (29.3 and 170.3 ml/kg/h, respectively). Mean values for area under the curve and mean residence time in horses (118.3 µg/h/ml and 3.6 hours, respectively) were significantly greater than values in donkeys (28.3 µg/h/ml and 1.7 hours, respectively). Mean values for apparent volume of distribution at steady state were not significantly different between horses and donkeys. For oxyphenbutazone, mean time to peak concentration in donkeys was significantly less than that in horses (1.6 and 6.4 hours, respectively).

Conclusion

Phenylbutazone clearance in donkeys was higher than that in horses, and appearance of the metabolite oxyphenbutazone in serum was more rapid in donkeys than in horses, indicating that hepatic metabolism of phenylbutazone is more rapid in donkeys than in horses.

Clinical Relevance

Because serum concentration of phenylbutazone after single IV bolus administration (4.4 mg/kg of body weight) decreases more rapidly in donkeys, compared with horses, phenylbutazone may require more frequent administration in donkeys to achieve therapeutic efficacy. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:53–55)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Objective

To determine the cardiovascular effects of buprenorphine in isoflurane-and halothane-anesthetized dogs.

Animals

6 healthy adult hound-type dogs given buprenorphine (16 μg/kg of body weight, IV) or isovolumetric 5% dextrose solution during anesthesia with isoflurane or halothane.

Procedure

Each dog was anesthetized 4 times, with a minimum of 10 days between episodes. Anesthesia was induced with isoflurane or halothane in O2 by mask, and was maintained with 1.9% isoflurane or 1.3% halothane (end-tidal concentration). The Paco2 was maintained between 35 and 45 mm of Hg by use of mechanical ventilation, and the following variables were determined: systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressures; cardiac output; cardiac index; stroke volume; heart rate; systemic vascular resistance; mean pulmonary arterial pressure; and pulmonary vascular resistance. In addition, arterial blood samples for gas and acid-base analyses were collected at 30-minute intervals for 2.5 hours. After baseline values were recorded, dogs were randomly assigned to receive either buprenorphine (16 μg/kg, IV) or isovolumetric 5% dextrose solution. All variables were then recorded at 15-minute intervals for 2.5 hours.

Results

During isoflurane anesthesia, buprenorphine administration caused significant (P < 0.05) reductions in diastolic arterial pressure, mean arterial pressure, systolic arterial pressure, cardiac index, and heart rate, whereas systemic vascular resistance increased significantly. During halothane anesthesia, buprenorphine administration caused significant decreases in heart rate, cardiac index, mean, systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressures, and stroke volume, whereas pulmonary arterial blood pressure and systemic vascular resistance increased significantly.

Conclusion

Although the changes seen were significant, they were not sufficiently large to be of clinical importance in healthy dogs. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:1280–1284)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The accuracy of a pulse oximeter was evaluated over a wide range of arterial oxygen and carbon dioxide tensions, using 2 probes (finger probe and ear probe) and 2 monitoring sites (tongue and tail) in anesthetized dogs The arterial oxygen saturation of hemoglobin (SaO2) measured directly with a multiwavelength spectrophotometer was compared with saturation estimated by pulse oximetry (SpO2). Linear regression analysis of the pooled data from 399 simultaneous measurements of SpO2 and SaO2 indicated a highly significant correlation of SpO2 with SaO2 (r = 0.97; P ≤ 0.0001). Although the mean difference (± sd) between SpO2 and SaO2 for pooled data was small (- 0.06 ± 6.8%), SpO2 tended to underestimate high SaO2 values (≥ 70%) and to overestimate low SaO2 values (< 70%). When SaO2 values were ≥ 70%, the ear probe applied to the tail was less accurate (produced a significantly greater SpO2-SaO2 difference) than the ear probe on the tongue, or the finger probe at either site. When SaO2 values were ≤ 50%, the finger probe applied at the tail was more accurate (produced significantly smaller SpO2-SaO2 differences) than the ear probe at either site. When SaO2 values were ≤ 70%, high arterial carbon dioxide tension (≥ 60 mm of Hg) was associated with greater overestimation of SaO2.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research