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Abstract

Objective

To study the effects of inhalation anesthetic agents on the response of horses to 3 hours of hypoxemia.

Design

Controlled crossover study.

Animals

Five healthy adult horses.

Procedure

Horses were anesthetized twice: once with halothane, and once with isoflurane in O2. Anesthetized horses were positioned in left lateral recumbency. Constant conditions for the study began at 2 hours of anesthesia. A constant agent dose of 1.2 minimum alveolar concentration, PaO2 of 50 ± 5 mm of Hg, and PaCO2 of 45 ± 5 mm of Hg were maintained for 3 hours. Circulatory measurements were made at 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 hours of hypoxemia (anesthesia hours 2.5, 3, 4, and 5). Blood was collected from horses for biochemical analyses before anesthesia, within a few minutes after standing, and at 1, 2, 4, and 7 days after anesthesia.

Results

Cardiac index was greater (P = 0.018) during isoflurane than halothane anesthesia. Cardiac index remained constant during the 3 hours of hypoxemia during halothane anesthesia, whereas it decreased from the baseline during isoflurane anesthesia. Marginally nonsignificant P values for an agent difference were detected for arterial O2 content (P = 0.051), and oxygen delivery (P = 0.057). Serum activities of aspartate transaminase (P = 0.050) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (P = 0.017) were higher in halothane-anesthetized horses than in isoflurane-anesthetized horses. Circulatory function was better in hypoxemic horses anesthetized with isoflurane than with halothane. Isoflurane resulted in less muscular injury in hypoxemia horses than did halothane anesthesia. Halothane anesthesia and hypoxemia were associated with hepatic insult.

Conclusion

Isoflurane is better than halothane for hypoxemic horses.(Am J Vet Res 1996;57:351-360)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Concentrations of amino acids in the plasma of 13 neonatal foals with septicemia were compared with the concentrations of amino acids in the plasma of 13 age-matched neonatal foals without septicemia. Analysis of the results revealed significantly lower concentrations of arginine, citrulline, isoleucine, proline, threonine, and valine in the plasma of foals with septicemia. The ratio of the plasma concentrations of the branched chain amino acids (isoleucine, leucine, and valine) to the aromatic amino acids (phenylalanine and tyrosine), was also significantly lower in the foals with septicemia. In addition, the concentrations of alanine, glycine, and phenylalanine were significantly higher in the plasma of foals with septicemia. Therefore, neonatal foals with septicemia had significant differences in the concentrations of several amino acids in their plasma, compared with concentrations from healthy foals. These differences were compatible with protein calorie inadequacy and may be related to an alteration in the intake, production, use, or clearance of amino acids from the plasma pool in sepsis.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The concentrations of 23 ammo acids in the plasma of 13 healthy foals were determined before suckling, when foals were 1 to 2 days old, 5 to 7 days old, 12 to 14 days old, and 26 to 28 days old. The ratio of the branched chain amino acids to the aromatic amino acids was also calculated at the 5 time points. Analysis of the concentrations at the 5 ages revealed a significant temporal relationship for each amino acid ranging from a polynomial order of 1 to 4 inclusively. There were significant differences between several concentrations of amino acids in plasma at specific sample times; however, no consistent patterns were revealed. The concentrations of amino acids in healthy foals were markedly different from previously determined values in adult horses. The significant differences in the concentrations of amino acids in plasma of healthy foals at the 5 ages may represent developmental aspects of amino acid metabolism or nutrition.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Results of studies in human beings and other species have indicated that aging significantly influences the strength, modulus of elasticity, and energy storage ability of tendon. We wanted to determine the effects of aging on the material and ultrasonographic properties of equine superficial digital flexor (sdf) tendon. Ultrasonographic measurements of left forelimb sdf tendon cross-sectional area and mean echogenicity were made in 23 standing horses ranging in age from 2 to 23 years. All horses had not been in work for a minimum of 6 months prior to the study. After euthanasia, left forelimb bone-muscle-tendon-bone specimens were mounted in a materials testing system. The sdf tendon was cyclically loaded sinusoidally 100 times at 0.5 Hz from 1.5 to 5.0% strain, then was submitted to 10-minute creep-and-stress relaxation tests. Modulus of elasticity, load at 3% strain, and creep-and-stress relaxation were determined for each specimen. A significant positive correlation was found between elastic modulus and age. Correlation was not found between age and sdf tendon cross-sectional area or mean echogenicity. When 2-year-old horses were compared with older horses, the latter had tendons with a significantly (P = 0.007) greater modulus of elasticity. The authors conclude that increasing age through maturity is associated with a corresponding increase in equine sdf tendon elastic modulus.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To assess tendon morphology and non-reducible crosslink concentration, and associations of these findings with horse age and previously reported mechanical and ultrasonographic findings.

Sample Population

Superficial digital flexor tendon samples were obtained from 23 horses aged 2 to 23 years. The tendons had undergone ultrasonography and were submitted to biomechanical testing in the physiologic range prior to sample acquisition.

Procedure

Samples were sectioned in a transverse plane; then dorsal, palmar, central, lateral, and medial regions were evaluated for fascicle cross-sectional area (CSA), septal width, and vessel density (the product of vessel numbers and vessel CSA per field). Contiguous samples were analyzed for collagen crosslinking.

Results

Central fascicles were significantly larger than fascicles in other tendon regions. Fascicle CSA decreased significantly with increasing age. Because total tendon CSA is unrelated to increasing age, fascicle numbers appeared to increase with increasing age. Regional or age effects on septal width were not found. There was no age or regional effect on vessel numbers, density, or fractional area.

Fascicle CSA was positively correlated with total tendon CSA; fascicle CSA was negatively correlated with elastic modulus. Hydroxypiridinium concentration tended to increase with increasing horse age; this effect was associated with a positive correlation between hydroxypiridinium values and elastic modulus.

Conclusions

Equine superficial digital flexor tendon undergoes an increase in structural organization and an increase in nonreducible crosslinks with maturation and aging. These changes are associated with an increase in elastic modulus. (Am J Vet Res 1997; 58:425–430)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research