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  • Author or Editor: Monika Hilbe x
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OBJECTIVE To characterize delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) features of healthy hyaline cartilage of the distal interphalangeal joint (DIPJ) of horses, to determine whether dGEMRIC can be used to differentiate various stages of naturally occurring osteoarthritis of the DIPJ, and to correlate relaxation times determined by dGEMRIC with the glycosaminoglycan concentration, water content, and macroscopic and histologic findings of hyaline cartilage of DIPJs with and without osteoarthritis.

SAMPLE 1 cadaveric forelimb DIPJ from each of 12 adult warmblood horses.

PROCEDURES T1-weighted cartilage relaxation times were obtained for predetermined sites of the DIPJ before (T1preGd) and after (T1postGd) intra-articular gadolinium administration. Corresponding cartilage sites underwent macroscopic, histologic, and immunohistochemical evaluation, and cartilage glycosaminoglycan concentration and water content were determined. Median T1preGd and T1postGd were correlated with macroscopic, histologic, and biochemical data. Mixed generalized linear models were created to evaluate the effects of cartilage site, articular surface, and macroscopic and histologic scores on relaxation times.

RESULTS 122 cartilage specimens were analyzed. Median T1postGd was lower than the median T1preGd for normal and diseased cartilage. Both T1preGd and T1postGd were correlated with macroscopic and histologic scores, whereby T1preGd increased and T1postGd decreased as osteoarthritis progressed. There was topographic variation of T1preGd and T1postGd within the DIPJ. Cartilage glycosaminoglycan concentration and water content were significantly correlated with T1preGd and macroscopic and histologic scores but were not correlated with T1postGd.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that dGEMRIC relaxation times varied for DIPJs with various degrees of osteoarthritis. These findings may help facilitate early detection of osteoarthritis.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To describe the clinical, laboratory, and ultrasonographic findings; treatment; and outcome of cattle with mesenteric torsion (MT).


61 cattle with MT between November 1, 1986, and December 31, 2019.


Medical records were retrospectively reviewed. Results were compared for cattle that survived versus did not survive to hospital discharge.


All cattle had abnormal demeanor. The most common clinical signs were tachycardia (80.3% [49/61]), tachypnea (65.0% [39/60]), and lower rectal temperature (59.3% [35/59]). Signs of colic occurred in 65.6% (40/61). The most common gastrointestinal findings were an empty or almost empty rectum (100% [59/59]), reduced or absent motility of the small intestines (96.6% [57/59]) or rumen (93.2% [55/59]), positive ballottement and/or percussion and simultaneous auscultation on the right side (91.7% [55/60]), and dilated small (49.2% [29/59]) and large intestines (spiral colon and/or cecum, 44.1% [26/59]) detected during transrectal examination. The most common laboratory findings were acidosis (82.6%, [38/46]) hypermagnesemia (74.5% [35/47]). Ultrasonographic findings included reduced or absent small intestinal motility (86.7% [26/30]) and dilated small intestines (83.8% [31/37]). The spiral colon was dilated in 32.4% (12/37) of the cattle. Eighty-two percent (50/61) of the cattle underwent right flank laparotomy and the MT could be reduced in 34.4% (21/61). Twenty-three percent (14/61) of the cattle survived to hospital discharge, and 77.0% (47/61) were euthanized before hospital discharge.


Dilated small and large intestines (spiral colon, cecum) combined with a severely abnormal demeanor and tachycardia are characteristic findings in cows with MT. Immediate surgical treatment is paramount.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association