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  • Author or Editor: Misty R. Yancey x
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OBJECTIVE To evaluate mean corpuscular volume difference (dMCV) as a marker for hypertonicity induced by water deprivation in dogs.

ANIMALS 5 healthy Greyhounds maintained in a research colony.

PROCEDURES Water was withheld for 24 hours. Blood and urine samples were collected before (time 0) and every 6 hours during water deprivation. Serum and urine osmolality were measured on the basis of freezing point depression, and dMCV was calculated from routine hematologic variables.

RESULTS Serum and urine osmolality significantly increased and body weight decreased over time in healthy Greyhounds during water deprivation, although most dogs developed only a slight increase in serum osmolality. The dMCV also increased over time, but the value at 24 hours did not differ significantly from the value at time 0. However, a significant correlation was found between serum osmolality and dMCV. A dMCV ≥ 5 fL yielded 100% specificity for predicting hypertonicity when hypertonicity was defined as serum osmolality ≥ 310 mOsM.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE dMCV may be a useful marker for detection of mild hypertonicity in dogs and may have clinical and research applications for use in screening canine populations for hypertonicity.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


OBJECTIVE To determine the tonicity effects of β-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate, and lactate in canine RBCs.

SAMPLE RBCs from approximately 40 dogs.

PROCEDURES 2 in vitro methods were used to conduct 4 experiments. The modified osmotic fragility assay was used to measure the ability of ketoacid salts added to serial sucrose dilutions to protect RBCs from osmotic hemolysis. In a second assay, a handheld cell counting device was used to measure changes in RBC diameter to assess the tonicity effect of solutions of ketoacid and lactate salts.

RESULTS For the modified osmotic fragility assay, all ketoacid salts had an osmoprotective effect, but the effect was determined to be completely attributable to the tonicity effect of added cations (sodium and lithium) and not the ketoacid moieties. However, both the sodium and lithium lactate salts provided osmoprotection attributable to both the cation and lactate anion. For the second assay, RBC diameter was significantly increased with the addition of urea (an ineffective osmole) but did not change with the addition of glucose (an effective osmole), which established the behaviors of ineffective and effective osmoles in this assay. The RBC diameter was significantly increased over that of control samples by the addition of sodium β-hydroxybutyrate, lithium acetoacetate, and lithium lactate but was decreased by the addition of sodium lactate.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE For both assays, β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate acted as ineffective osmoles, whereas lactate acted as an effective osmole in 3 of 4 experiments.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research