OBJECTIVE To investigate effects of changes in analytic variables and contrast medium osmolality on glomerular filtration rate estimated by CT (CT-GFR) in dogs.
ANIMALS 4 healthy anesthetized Beagles.
PROCEDURES GFR was estimated by inulin clearance, and dogs underwent CT-GFR with iodinated contrast medium (iohexol or iodixanol) in a crossover-design study. Dynamic renal CT scanning was performed. Patlak plot analysis was used to calculate GFR with the renal cortex or whole kidney selected as the region of interest. The renal cortex was analyzed just prior to time of the second cortical attenuation peak. The whole kidney was analyzed 60, 80, 100, and 120 seconds after the appearance of contrast medium. Automated GFR calculations were performed with preinstalled perfusion software including 2 noise reduction levels (medium and strong). The CT-GFRs were compared with GFR estimated by inulin clearance.
RESULTS There was no significant difference in CT-GFR with iohexol versus iodixanol in any analyses. The CT-GFR at the renal cortex, CT-GFR for the whole kidney 60 seconds after appearance of contrast medium, and CT-GFR calculated by perfusion software with medium noise reduction did not differ significantly from GFR estimated by inulin clearance. The CT-GFR was underestimated at ≥ 80 seconds after contrast medium appearance (whole kidney) and when strong noise reduction was used with perfusion CT software.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Selection of the renal cortex as region of interest or use of the 60-second time point for whole-kidney evaluation yielded the best CT-GFR results. The perfusion software used produced good results with appropriate noise reduction.
IMPACT FOR HUMAN MEDICINE The finding that excessive noise reduction caused underestimation of CT-GFR suggests that this factor should also be considered in CT-GFR examination of human patients.
To examine whether glucocorticoid (GC) administration alters hippocampal cerebral blood flow (CBF) or volume in dogs.
6 clinically normal adult Beagles.
Each dog underwent CT and MRI to measure the CBF in the hippocampus, basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebral cortex and the volume of the hippocampus in each hemisphere of the brain before (day 0) and during (days 7 and 21) a 21-day treatment with prednisolone (1.0 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h) and famotidine (0.5 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h). Results for hippocampal volume, anesthesia-related variables, and semiquantitative measurements of CBF (hemisphere-specific ratios of the CBF in the hippocampus, basal ganglia, and thalamus relative to the CBF in the ipsilateral cerebral cortex and the left cerebral cortex CBF-to-right cerebral cortex CBF ratio) were compared across assessment time points (days 0, 7, and 21).
The ratios of CBF in the right hippocampus and right thalamus to that in the right cerebral cortex on day 21 were significantly lower than those on day 0. No meaningful differences were detected in results for the hippocampal volume in either hemisphere or for the anesthesia-related variables across the 3 time points.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results indicated that GC administration reduced CBF in the hippocampus and thalamus in dogs of the present study, similar to that which occurs in humans. Research on GC-related brain alteration in dogs could potentially contribute to advancements in understanding Alzheimer disease in humans and neurodegenerative conditions in dogs.