Objective—To describe complications and outcome
associated with chronic nonseptic pleural effusion
treated with pleuroperitoneal shunts in dogs.
Procedure—Medical records at 4 veterinary schools
were examined to identify dogs with chronic nonseptic
pleural effusion that were treated by use of a pleuroperitoneal
shunt between 1985 and 1999.
Signalment, history, physical examination and laboratory
findings, cause and type of pleural effusion, medical
and surgical treatments, complications, and outcome
Results—10 of 14 dogs had idiopathic chylothorax,
and 4 had an identified disease. All but 1 dog with
idiopathic chylothorax and 1 dog with chylothorax
from a heart base tumor had unsuccessful thoracic
duct ligation prior to pump placement. No intraoperative
complications developed during shunt placement.
Short-term complications developed in 7 of 13
dogs, necessitating shunt removal in 2 dogs and
euthanasia in 1. Eight of 11 dogs with long-term follow-
up developed complications; the overall mean
survival time and the interval in which dogs remained
free of clinical signs of pleural effusion were 27
months (range, 1 to 108 months) and 20 months
(range, 0.5 to 108 months), respectively.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Pleuroperitoneal
shunts can effectively palliate clinical signs
associated with intractable pleural effusion in dogs.
Numerous short- and long-term complications related
to the shunt should be expected. Most complications
can be successfully managed, but even when shunts
are functional some treatments fail because of severe
abdominal distension or massive pleural fluid production
that overwhelms the functional capacity of the
shunt. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:1590–1597)
Objective—To evaluate clinical data for cold-stunned Kemp's ridley turtles (Lepidochelys kempii) with Enterococcus spp infections during rehabilitation.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—50 stranded cold-stunned Kemp's ridley turtles hospitalized between 2006 and 2012.
Procedures—Medical records for turtles from which Enterococcus spp were isolated were reviewed retrospectively, and clinical data, including morphometric data, body temperature at admission, physical examination findings, antimicrobial medication history, history of medications administered IV, environmental data, day of diagnosis, clinical signs at diagnosis, microbiological testing results, sources of positive culture results, hematologic and plasma biochemical data, cytologic and histopathologic results, radiographic findings, antimicrobial treatments, time to first negative culture result, treatment duration, results of subsequent cultures, and case outcome, were collated and analyzed.
Results—Enterococcus spp were isolated from bacteriologic cultures of blood, bone, joint, and respiratory tract samples and a skin lesion, with supporting evidence of infection provided by histopathologic, cytologic, and radiographic data. Positive culture results were associated with clinical problems such as lethargy, anorexia, and lameness. Most (34/43 [79%]) turtles for which an antemortem diagnosis was made survived with treatment and were released into the wild.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cold-stunned Kemp's ridley turtles may be affected by serious Enterococcus spp infections during rehabilitation. Recognition and treatment of these infections are important for successful rehabilitation.