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Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the oncotic, hemodilutional, and hemostatic effects of IV infusions of a large volume of isotonic saline solution and 2 doses of 6% hydroxyethyl starch (HES) in clinically normal ponies.

Animals

12 adult ponies.

Procedure

Ponies were assigned to 3 treatment groups and received the following IV infusions: 80 ml of 0.9% sodium chloride/kg; 10 ml of 6% HES (in 0.9% sodium chloride)/kg; or 20 ml of 6% HES (in 0.9% sodium chloride)/kg. Blood samples were collected for determination of colloid oncotic pressure (COP), PCV, plasma total protein concentration, platelet count, von Willebrand factor antigen (vWf:Ag) activity, fibrinogen concentration, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and factor VIII coagulant (FVIII:C) activity. A rocket immunoelectrophoretic procedure was used for determination of vWf:Ag activity. A modification of the APTT assay was used for determination of FVIII:C activity. Cutaneous bleeding time was determined, using a template method.

Results

Mean COP was persistently increased over baseline values in the face of hemodilution in HES-treated ponies. Prothrombin time, APTT, and fibrinogen concentrations decreased after infusions and vWf:Ag and FVIII:C activities were decreased in dosedependent manner in HES-treated ponies. Though cutaneous bleeding time was not significantly affected in ponies of any group, a trend toward prolongation of bleeding time was evident in ponies receiving 20 ml of HES/kg. This trend appeared to be associated with marked decrement in vWf:Ag activity at this dosage.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Infusion of HES in clinically normal ponies increases COP, and exerts dose-dependent hemodilutional effects and dose-dependent effects on specific hemostatic variables. Thus, HES may be useful for resuscitative fluid treatment of horses. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:541–548)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine the effects of endotracheal intubation on respiratory mechanics during xylazine sedation and xylazine-diazepam-ketamine anesthesia in adult horses.

Animals

5 healthy adult horses.

Procedure

Measurements were derived from recordings of respiratory gas flow, and transpulmonary and transtracheal pressures. Total pulmonary resistance (RT) was partitioned into upper airway resistance (extrathoracic portion of trachea, larynx, pharynx, nasal cavity, nares; RUA) and lower airway resistance (intrathoracic portion of trachea, bronchi, bronchioles). Baseline measurements were obtained in unsedated horses, after xylazine administration, and following nasotracheal intubation (ID, 18 mm). Measurements were obtained following induction of xylazine-diazepam-ketamine anesthesia and subsequent to endotracheal intubations (ID, 22, 20, and 16 mm). During recovery, horses were nasotracheally intubated (ID, 18 mm). Measurements were obtained upon standing, and repeated after extubation. Data were examined by use of ANOVA with repeated measures.

Results

Significant increases in mean work of breathing (W), RT, and RUA observed with xylazine sedation were variably attenuated by nasotracheal intubation. During xylazine-diazepam-ketamine anesthesia, the highest mean values for W, RT, RUA, transpulmonary and transtracheal pressures developed during nonintubation periods. The magnitudes of resistance and pressure values were inversely proportional to the internal diameter of the endotracheal tube. At recovery, values of the W and all measurements of resistances and pressures were significantly increased, compared with presedation values. Extubation resulted in further increases in these measurements.

Conclusions

Work of breathing in horses is substantially increased when RUA is increased during xylazine sedation and xylazine-diazepam-ketamine anesthesia. Endotracheal intubation reduces W by reducing RUA. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:641–646)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research