OBJECTIVE To evaluate associations of measures assessed by radiography, 2-D CT, and 3-D CT of the hip joints of immature dogs with osteoarthritis in the same joints at maturity.
ANIMALS 46 hound-type dogs from a colony predisposed to osteoarthritis.
PROCEDURES Images of hip joints (1/dog) were obtained at 16, 32, and 104 weeks of age. Radiographic measures included Norberg angle, distraction index, and osteoarthritis score. Two-dimensional CT measures included acetabular index, percentage of femoral head coverage, and center edge, horizontal toit externe, acetabular anteversion, and ventral, dorsal, and horizontal acetabular sector angles. Three-dimensional CT measures were femoral head and neck volume, femoral neck angle, and femoral head and neck radius. Differences among measures at 16 and 32 weeks in dogs with different osteoarthritis scores at later time points, relationships among variables at each time point, and relationships of single and combined measures with the presence of osteoarthritis at 104 weeks were evaluated.
RESULTS The 16- and 32-week distraction index, center edge angle, dorsal acetabular sector angle, horizontal acetabular sector angle, percentage of femoral head coverage, acetabular index, and Norberg angle and the 32-week femoral neck angle varied significantly with osteoarthritis severity at 104 weeks. Presence of osteoarthritis in mature dogs was most strongly associated with 16-week combined measures of distraction index and center edge angle and 32-week combined measures of dorsal acetabular sector angle and Norberg angle.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Changes in hip joint morphology associated with radiographic signs of osteoarthritis were detectable as early as 16 weeks of age and varied with osteoarthritis severity in adult dogs. The use of combined hip joint measures may improve early identification of dogs predisposed to hip joint osteoarthritis.