OBJECTIVE To evaluate associations of measures assessed by radiography, 2-D CT, and 3-D CT of the hip joints of immature dogs with osteoarthritis in the same joints at maturity.
ANIMALS 46 hound-type dogs from a colony predisposed to osteoarthritis.
PROCEDURES Images of hip joints (1/dog) were obtained at 16, 32, and 104 weeks of age. Radiographic measures included Norberg angle, distraction index, and osteoarthritis score. Two-dimensional CT measures included acetabular index, percentage of femoral head coverage, and center edge, horizontal toit externe, acetabular anteversion, and ventral, dorsal, and horizontal acetabular sector angles. Three-dimensional CT measures were femoral head and neck volume, femoral neck angle, and femoral head and neck radius. Differences among measures at 16 and 32 weeks in dogs with different osteoarthritis scores at later time points, relationships among variables at each time point, and relationships of single and combined measures with the presence of osteoarthritis at 104 weeks were evaluated.
RESULTS The 16- and 32-week distraction index, center edge angle, dorsal acetabular sector angle, horizontal acetabular sector angle, percentage of femoral head coverage, acetabular index, and Norberg angle and the 32-week femoral neck angle varied significantly with osteoarthritis severity at 104 weeks. Presence of osteoarthritis in mature dogs was most strongly associated with 16-week combined measures of distraction index and center edge angle and 32-week combined measures of dorsal acetabular sector angle and Norberg angle.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Changes in hip joint morphology associated with radiographic signs of osteoarthritis were detectable as early as 16 weeks of age and varied with osteoarthritis severity in adult dogs. The use of combined hip joint measures may improve early identification of dogs predisposed to hip joint osteoarthritis.
Objective—To determine phenol red thread test (PRTT) values in eyes of clinically normal Hispaniolan Amazon parrots before and after topical application of an ophthalmic anesthetic agent and compare findings with Schirmer tear test (STT) values.
Animals—24 Amazona ventralis parrots from a research colony.
Procedures—On 4 occasions (1-week intervals), all birds underwent a thorough ophthalmic examination of both eyes, which included (in sequence) performance of a PRTT and an STT; topical ocular application of proparacaine hydrochloride; and performance of another PRTT and another STT. Correlations between PRTT and STT values recorded with and without topical anesthesia were assessed.
Results—Without topical anesthesia, mean ± SD PRTT value was 12.5 ± 5.0 mm/15 s (range, 1 to 25 mm/15 s). With topical anesthesia, the PRTT value was 12.6 ± 5.4 mm/15 s (range, 2 to 24 mm/15 s). Without topical anesthesia, mean STT value was 7.9 ± 2.6 mm/min (range, 0 to 13 mm/min). With topical anesthesia, the STT value was 5.1 ± 3.3 mm/min (range, 0 to 18 mm/min). The correlation of PRTT and STT values recorded with or without topical anesthesia was weak (r = 0.51 and r = 0.32, respectively).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that the PRTT and STT were both viable methods for measurement of tear production in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Topical application of an ophthalmic anesthetic agent did not have a significant effect on the PRTT values but significantly decreased the STT values.
Objective—To characterize the response of skin of nonallergic horses following ID injection of polyclonal rabbit anti-canine IgE (anti-IgE) and rabbit IgG.
Animals—6 healthy horses.
Procedures—Skin in the cervical area was injected ID with anti-IgE and IgG. Wheal measurements and skin biopsy specimens were obtained before and 20 minutes and 6, 24, and 48 hours after injection. Tissue sections were evaluated for inflammatory cells at 4 dermal depths. Immunohistochemical analysis for CD3, CD4, and CD8 was performed, and cell counts were evaluated.
Results—Anti-IgE wheals were significantly larger than IgG wheals at 20 minutes and 6 and 24 hours after injection. There were significantly more degranulated mast cells after anti-IgE injection than after IgG injection. There were significantly more eosinophils at 6, 24, and 48 hours and neutrophils at 6 hours after anti-IgE injection, compared with cell numbers at those same times after IgG injection. There were significantly more eosinophils in the deeper dermis of anti-IgE samples, compared with results for IgG samples. No significant differences between treatments were detected for CD3+, CD4+, or CD8+ cells.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Injection of anti-IgE antibodies was associated with the development of gross and microscopic inflammation characterized by mast cell degranulation and accumulation of inflammatory cells, particularly eosinophils and neutrophils. This pattern appeared to be similar to that of horses with naturally developing allergic skin disease, although lymphocytes were not increased; thus, ID injection of anti-IgE in horses may be of use for evaluating allergic skin diseases of horses.
Objective—To characterize the effects of pentoxifylline on the gross and microscopic variables associated with immediate and late-phase inflammation following injection of IgE-specific antibodies in the skin of clinically normal dogs.
Animals—6 healthy adult mixed-breed dogs.
Procedures—Intradermal injections (0.1 mL each) of PBS solution, histamine phosphate, and cross-linking rabbit-origin anti-canine IgE antibodies (3 injections/dog) were administered at 0 hours on day 0; wheal sizes were evaluated at 20 minutes, 6 hours, and 24 hours. Biopsy specimens of injected and noninjected skin were collected 24 hours after injection. On day 2, treatment with pentoxifylline (20 mg/kg, PO, q 8 h) was initiated and continued until day 30. For each dog, injection, measurement, and biopsy procedures were repeated on days 30 to 31 and on days 37 to 38 (ie, after discontinuation of pentoxifylline administration).
Results—Pentoxifylline administration was associated with a significant decrease in wheal size at 6 and 24 hours (but not at 20 minutes) after injection of anti-canine IgE. Repeated injections performed 1 week after drug discontinuation revealed partial recovery of the 6-hour cutaneous reaction and complete recovery of the 24-hour cutaneous reaction. Pentoxifylline administration was also associated with inhibition of mast cell degranulation and significant decreases in the total numbers of cutaneous inflammatory cells and eosinophils, compared with pretreatment findings.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In clinically normal dogs, pentoxifylline effectively impaired late-phase reactions but not immediate reactions at sites of intradermal injection of IgE-specific antibodies by inhibiting mast cell degranulation and recruitment of cutaneous inflammatory cells, especially eosinophils.
OBJECTIVE To use CT-derived measurements to create a ferret-specific formula for body surface area (BSA) to improve chemotherapeutic dosing.
ANIMALS 25 adult ferrets (19 live and 6 cadavers).
PROCEDURES Live subjects were weighed, and body measurements were obtained by each of 3 observers while ferrets were awake and anesthetized. Computed tomography was performed, and a 3-D surface model was constructed with open-source imaging software, from which BSA was estimated. The CT-derived values were compared with BSA calculated on the basis of the traditional tape method for 6 cadavers. To further validate CT analysis software, 11 geometric shapes were scanned and their CT-derived values compared with those calculated directly via geometric formulas. Agreement between methods of surface area estimation was assessed with linear regression. Ferret-specific formulas for BSA were determined with nonlinear regression models.
RESULTS Repeatability among the 3 observers was good for all measurements, but some measurements differed significantly between awake and anesthetized ferrets. Excellent agreement was found between measured versus CT-derived surface area of shapes, traditional tape– versus CT-derived BSA of ferret cadavers, and CT-derived BSA of cadavers with and without monitoring equipment. All surface area formulas performed relatively similarly.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE CT-derived BSA measurements of ferrets obtained via open-source imaging software were reliable. On the basis of study results, the recommended formula for BSA in ferrets would be 9.94 × (body weight)2/3; however, this represented a relatively minor difference from the feline-derived formula currently used by most practitioners and would result in little practical change in drug doses.