Objective—To determine prevalence of enteric
zoonotic organisms in cats in north-central Colorado.
Sample Population—Serum and fecal samples from
87 cats with diarrhea, 106 cats without diarrhea, and
12 cats for which fecal consistency was unknown.
Procedures—Samples were obtained from clientowned
cats and cats at a humane society shelter.
Serum was assayed for feline leukemia virus antigen
and antibodies against feline immunodeficiency virus,
IgM antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii, and IgG
antibodies against T gondii and Cryptosporidium
parvum. Microscopic examination of unstained feces
was performed after centrifugation in a zinc sulfate
solution, thin fecal smears were stained with acid fast
stain and examined for C parvum, and bacteriologic
culture of feces was used to detect aerobic and
Results—Enteric zoonotic organisms were detected
in feces from 27 of 206 (13.1%) cats and included
C parvum (5.4%), Giardia spp (2.4%), Toxocara cati
(3.9%), Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium
(1.0%), and Campylobacter jejuni (1.0%); each organism
was detected in samples from cats with and
without diarrhea. Although differences between
groups were not significant, a higher proportion of
shelter cats (18.2%) had enteric zoonotic organisms
than client-owned cats (10.1%).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Enteric
zoonotic organisms were detected in feces of 13.1%
of cats, suggesting that cats, particularly those in
homes of immunocompromised humans, should be
evaluated for enteric zoonotic organisms. (J Am Vet
Med Assoc 2000;216:687–692)
Objective—To evaluate the use of sucrose permeability
testing to detect ulcers in the gastric squamous
mucosa of horses.
Animals—13 adult horses ranging from 5 to 19 years
Procedure—Following induction of gastric ulcers by
intermittent feed deprivation, horses underwent
sucrose permeability testing (administration of
sucrose by nasogastric intubation followed by collection
of urine at 2 and 4 hours after intubation) and gastric
endoscopy. Squamous ulcers were assigned a
severity score (range, 0 to 3) by use of an established
scoring system. Horses were subsequently administered
omeprazole for 21 days, and sucrose testing
and endoscopy were repeated. Pair-wise comparisons
of urine sucrose concentration were made
between horses with induced ulcers before and after
omeprazole treatment. Urine sucrose concentrations
also were compared on the basis of ulcer severity
Results—Urine sucrose concentrations and ulcer
severity scores were significantly higher in horses
with induced ulcers before omeprazole treatment
than after treatment. Urine sucrose concentrations
were significantly higher for horses with ulcer severity
scores > 1. Use of a cut-point value of 0.7 mg/mL
revealed that the apparent sensitivity and specificity
of sucrose permeability testing to detect ulcers with
severity scores > 1 was 83% and 90%, respectively.
Results were similar after adjusting sucrose concentrations
for urine osmolality.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Urine sucrose
concentration appears to be a reliable but imperfect
indicator of gastric squamous ulcers in horses.
Sucrose permeability testing may provide a simple,
noninvasive test to detect and monitor gastric ulcers
in horses. ( Am J Vet Res 2004;65:31–39)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether Mycobacterium bovis remains viable in ensiled forages.
SAMPLE Alfalfa, mixed mostly grass, and corn silages.
PROCEDURES For each of 10 sampling days, six 250-g replicate samples of each feedstuff were created and placed in a film pouch that could be vacuum sealed to simulate the ensiling process. Within each set of replicate samples, 4 were inoculated with 10 mL of mycobacterial liquid culture medium containing viable M bovis and 2 were inoculated with 10 mL of sterile mycobacterial liquid culture medium (controls) on day 0. Pouches were vacuum sealed and stored in the dark at room temperature. On the designated sampling day, 1 control pouch was submitted for forage analysis, and the other pouches were opened, and forage samples were obtained for M bovis culture and analysis with a PCR assay immediately and 24 hours later.
RESULTS None of the control samples had positive M bovis culture or PCR assay results. Among M bovis-inoculated samples, the organism was not cultured from alfalfa and corn silage for > 2 days but was cultured from mixed mostly grass silage for 28 days after inoculation and ensiling initiation. Mycobacterium bovis DNA was detected by PCR assay in samples of all 3 feedstuffs throughout the 112-day observation period.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that properly ensiled forages would be an unlikely source for M bovis transmission to cattle. Further research is necessary to determine whether ensiling kills M bovis or forces it to become dormant and, if the latter, elucidate the conditions that cause it to revert to an infectious state.
To compare complications and outcome following unilateral, staged bilateral, and single-stage bilateral ventral bulla osteotomy (VBO) in cats.
282 client-owned cats treated by VBO at 25 veterinary referral and academic hospitals from 2005 through 2016.
Medical records of cats were reviewed to collect information on signalment, clinical signs, diagnostic test results, surgical and postoperative management details, complications (anesthetic, surgical, and postoperative), and outcome. Associations were evaluated among selected variables.
Unilateral, staged bilateral, and single-stage bilateral VBO was performed in 211, 7, and 64 cats, respectively, representing 289 separate procedures. Eighteen (9%), 2 (29%), and 30 (47%) of these cats, respectively, had postoperative respiratory complications. Cats treated with single-stage bilateral VBO were significantly more likely to have severe respiratory complications and surgery-related death than cats treated with other VBO procedures. Overall, 68.2% (n = 197) of the 289 procedures were associated with Horner syndrome (19.4% permanently), 30.1% (87) with head tilt (22.1% permanently), 13.5% (39) with facial nerve paralysis (8.0% permanently), and 6.2% (18) with local disease recurrence. Cats with (vs without) Horner syndrome, head tilt, and facial nerve paralysis before VBO had 2.6, 3.3, and 5.6 times the odds, respectively, of having these conditions permanently.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Findings suggested that staged bilateral VBO should be recommended over single-stage bilateral VBO for cats with bilateral middle ear disease. Cats with Horner syndrome, head tilt, and facial nerve paralysis before surgery were more likely to have these conditions permanently following surgery than were cats without these conditions.