Describe clinical features, treatment, and outcomes in dogs with deep neck infections.
19 dogs undergoing surgical treatment of deep neck infections from January 1, 2015, through December 31, 2020.
Retrospective record review was conducted, with data collected including clinical signs; neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR); diagnostic imaging, surgical, and histopathologic findings; and follow-up. Spearman correlation and Wilcoxon rank sum were used to compare variables to NLR.
All dogs had cervical swelling, and 9 were febrile. On CT, a distinct mass or abscess (7/13) or abscessed lymph node (4/13) was common, with contrast enhancement (10/13), fluid tracking (8/13), and displacement of the trachea, pharynx, or larynx (6/13) also frequently seen. Foreign material was suspected on CT for 4 dogs and was identified at surgery or histopathology for 4 dogs, only 1 of which was suspected on CT. Histopathology most commonly revealed pyogranulomatous inflammation (14/15). Increasing NLR was moderately correlated to a decreased duration of clinical signs before presentation (ρ = –0.548; P = .035) and an increased length of hospitalization (ρ = 0.645; P = .009). Bacterial culture was submitted for all dogs, and polymicrobial infections were common (8/19). Broad-spectrum empirical antimicrobials were commonly prescribed. Change in antimicrobial treatment based on culture was uncommon (3/19). All dogs survived to hospital discharge; 18 dogs with long-term follow-up had complete resolution of clinical signs.
CT was useful to plan for surgery, and surgical treatment resulted in resolution of clinical signs in all dogs with long-term follow-up available. Empirical antimicrobial treatment, such as amoxicillin–clavulanic acid or ampicillin-sulbactam, should be considered.
To identify risk factors for intra- and postoperative ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) and in-hospital mortality in dogs undergoing splenectomy for splenic masses.
Records from 2010 through 2018 were reviewed for dogs undergoing splenectomy for a splenic mass. Clinical and laboratory findings on admission, diagnostic imaging, anesthesia, surgery and pathology reports, treatment records, and in-hospital mortality were evaluated with logistic regression.
VAs occurred in 138 (44.8%) dogs (126/308 [40.9%] postoperative, 51/308 [16.6%] intraoperative, 26/308 [8.4%] preoperative), with 50/308 (16.2%) dogs having more than one type of VA. Increasing heart rate and body weight, decreasing PCV and platelet count, hemoperitoneum, receipt of a transfusion, and diagnosis of hemangiosarcoma were associated with the presence of intra- and postoperative VAs on univariable analysis (all P < .001). On multivariable analysis, hemoperitoneum (P < .001 , < .001), increasing body weight (P = .026, < .001), and increasing heart rate (P = .028, < .001) were significant for intra- and postoperative VAs, respectively. Twenty dogs died (20/308 [6.5%]; 14/138 [10.1%] with VAs, 6/170 [3.5%] without VAs). Intra- and postoperative VAs were associated with in-hospital mortality (P = .009, .025, respectively).
Perioperative VAs were common and odds of VAs were increased with hemoperitoneum, increasing heart rate, and increasing body weight. Presence of VAs increased the odds of in-hospital mortality. Despite this, the overall in-hospital mortality rate was low (6.5%), indicating a good prognosis for survival of surgery in dogs with splenic masses, regardless of the presence of VAs or hemoperitoneum.