To compare clinical, endoscopic, and histopathologic features between dogs with chronic gastritis (CG) with and without lymphofollicular hyperplasia (LFH).
64 and 56 dogs with CG with (cases) and without (controls) LFH, respectively.
The medical record database of a referral clinic was searched to identify dogs that underwent endoscopic examination of the upper portion of the gastrointestinal tract and were subsequently determined to have CG with or without LFH between October 2006 and February 2011. Signalment and clinical, endoscopic, and histologic findings were compared between cases and controls. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with CG with LFH.
Compared with controls, cases were significantly younger and more likely to be of a brachycephalic phenotype. The proportions of dogs with a poor body condition or diarrhea were significantly lower and the proportions of dogs with inspiratory dyspnea, exercise intolerance, or hyperemia and discoloration of the gastric mucosa were significantly higher for the case group, compared with the control group. Inspiratory dyspnea, gastric mucosal hyperemia, and gastritis severity were positively associated, whereas poor body condition was negatively associated, with CG with LFH on multivariable logistic regression.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
The strong positive association between inspiratory dyspnea and CG with LFH suggested that the condition may be a consequence of an increase in negative intrathoracic pressure rather than a distinct clinical entity. Prospective studies are warranted to elucidate the mechanism by which inspiratory dyspnea contributes to the development of CG with LFH.
Objective—To compare pharmacokinetics and clearances of creatinine and iohexol as estimates of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in dogs with various degrees of renal function.
Animals—50 Great Anglo-Francais Tricolor Hounds with various degrees of renal function.
Procedures—Boluses of iohexol (40 mg/kg) and creatinine (647 mg/kg) were injected IV. Blood samples were collected before administration and 5 and 10 minutes and 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours after administration. Plasma creatinine and iohexol concentrations were assayed via an enzymatic method and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively. A noncompartmental approach was used for pharmacokinetic analysis. Pharmacokinetic variables were compared via a Bland-Altman plot and an ANOVA.
Results—Compared with results for creatinine, iohexol had a significantly higher mean ± SD plasma clearance (3.4 ± 0.8 mL/min/kg vs 3.0 ± 0.7 mL/min/kg) and a significantly lower mean volume of distribution at steady state (250 ± 37 mL/kg vs 539 ± 73 mL/kg), mean residence time (80 ± 31 minutes vs 195 ± 73 minutes), and mean elimination half-life (74 ± 20 minutes vs 173 ± 53 minutes). Despite discrepancies between clearances, especially for high values, the difference was < 0.6 mL/min/kg for 34 (68%) dogs. Three dogs with a low GFR (< 2 mL/min/kg) were classified similarly by both methods.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Plasma iohexol and creatinine clearances can be used interchangeably for screening patients suspected of having chronic kidney disease (ie, low GFR), but large differences may exist for dogs with a GFR within or above the reference range.