Objective—To describe and evaluate a new radiographic
view of the elbow joint in dogs that would
potentially enhance observation of the medial coronoid
Sample Population—20 cadaver limbs from 10 dogs
and clinical examination of 100 elbow joints of 53 dogs.
Procedure—Twenty elbow joints from 10 cadavers
were imaged by use of mediolateral, flexed mediolateral,
craniocaudal, craniolateral-caudomedial oblique
(Cr15L-CdMO), and distomedial-proximolateral oblique
(Di35M-PrLO) radiographic views before and after
placement of 3 lead pellets placed on the cranial,
medial, and craniodistal aspect of the MCP. Three
examiners independently reviewed these radiographs.
One hundred elbow joints of 53 dogs with
forelimb lameness and signs of pain elicited on palpation
of the elbow joint were examined. These joints
were radiographed and treated by use of arthroscopy.
Three examiners independently graded the radiographs.
Results—The MCP was identified on all Di35M-PrLO
views made during the anatomic study. The Di35M-PrLO
view had the largest area under the receiving
operating characteristic (ROC) curve for detection of
abnormalities of the MCP. Fractured and nonfractured
MCP could only be significantly differentiated on
Di35M-PrLO and mediolateral views. The Di35M-PrLO
view had a higher agreement between examiners
than other radiographic views for detection of
fractures of the MCP.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—The Di35M-PrLO
view enhances the identification of anomalies
and fragmentation of the MCP in dogs, compared
with other radiographic views. The Di35M-PrLO view
may be of benefit for early screening of dogs potentially
affected with elbow dysplasia. (Am J Vet Res
Objectives—To evaluate the accuracy of 2 radiographic
methods used to assess tibial plateau slope
(TPS) in dogs and evaluate effects of film digitization
and radiographic beam placement on TPS measurements.
Sample Population—16 hind limbs from dog cadavers
weighing > 20 kg.
Procedures—Radiographs of tibiae were made with
the radiographic beam centered over the stifle joint
and midshaft of the tibia. Tibiae were collected, the
femorotibial contact area was determined, and slope
of the medial tibial condyle in relation to the tibial
shaft was measured. Radiographs were digitized.
Slope of the medial tibial condyle was measured on
printed and digitized radiographs read in random order
by 6 examiners unaware of anatomic measurements.
Three examiners used a conventional measuring technique,
and 3 examiners used an alternative measuring
Results—Anatomic measurements were significantly
higher than radiographic measurements made by use
of the conventional interpretation method but did not
differ from radiographic measurements made by use of
the alternate method. Measurements from printed radiographs
were lower than measurements from digitized
radiographs for the 4 most experienced examiners.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Measurements
made by use of a line tangential to the cranial, linear portion
of the medial tibial condyle at the femorotibial contact
point were accurate measurements of the anatomic
TPS. Measurements made by use of the conventional
TPS measurement method underestimated the anatomic
TPS. Measurements made on digitized radiographs
were typically more accurate than measurements made
on printed radiographs. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:586–589)
Objective—To determine demographic, clinical, and
radiographic features of bronchiectasis in dogs.
Animals—289 dogs identified through the Veterinary
Medical Database (VMDB) and 27 dogs examined at
the North Carolina State University Veterinary
Procedure—Demographic characteristics of dogs
identified through the VMDB were compared with
characteristics of the entire population of dogs
entered in the VMDB. Medical records of dogs examined
at the teaching hospital were reviewed; the diagnosis
was confirmed through review of thoracic radiographs.
Results—Analysis of data from the VMDB indicated
that American Cocker Spaniels, West Highland White
Terriers, Miniature Poodles, Siberian Huskies, English
Springer Spaniels, and dogs > 10 years old had an
increased risk of bronchiectasis. Among dogs examined
at the teaching hospital, coughing was the most
common clinical sign. There was evidence for excessive
airway mucus but not hemorrhage. A variety of
bacterial organisms were isolated from tracheal wash
and bronchoalveolar lavage samples. On thoracic radiographs,
cylindrical bronchiectasis, generalized disease,
and right cranial lung lobe involvement were
most common. Seven of 14 dogs for which follow-up
radiographs were available did not have any progression
of radiographic lesions. Median duration of clinical
signs prior to diagnosis of bronchiectasis was 9
months (range, 1 day to 10 years). Median survival
time was 16 months (range, 2 days to 72 months).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that despite substantial clinical abnormalities,
dogs with bronchiectasis may survive for years.
Certain purebred dogs and older dogs may have an
increased risk of developing bronchiectasis. (J Am Vet
Med Assoc 2003;223:1628–1635)