Objective—To evaluate records of racehorses with palmar carpal osteochondral fragments and determine whether the fragments were indicators of the severity of pathologic joint changes or prognosis.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Procedures—Medical records, radiographs, and videos of arthroscopic procedures were reviewed. Information gathered included signalment; location, number, and size of the primary lesion; number and size of palmar carpal fragments; and details pertaining to surgical procedures. Outcome variables were obtained from race records.
Results—31 horses met the selection criteria. Multiple palmar fragments were diagnosed in 58% of horses; small fragments (< 3 mm in diameter) were most common (52% of horses). Fifty-two percent of the horses returned to racing, 48% returned to racing and earned money, and 32% had at least 5 more starts. Horses with multiple fragments had significantly less earnings per start and lower performance index values after surgery than those with 1 fragment. Horses with palmar fragments < 3 mm in diameter were significantly less likely to return to racing and have 5 starts or to win money after surgery than horses with larger fragments.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Palmar carpal osteochondral fragments can be used as an indicator of clinically important joint pathology and as a prognostic indicator in racehorses. Horses with multiple small fragments were less likely to successfully return to racing than horses with only dorsally located carpal fragments or horses with 1 or 2 large palmar fragments. When possible, removal of palmar carpal osteochondral fragments should be considered.
Objective—To determine the effect of colic surgery on return to function in Thoroughbred racehorses, identify clinical variables associated with successful return to racing, and compare racing performance between horses undergoing colic surgery and an untreated cohort.
Design—Retrospective cohort study.
Animals—59 Thoroughbred racehorses 2 to 5 years of age that underwent colic surgery and survived to hospital discharge and 90 untreated Thoroughbred racehorses equivalent in class.
Procedures—Medical records of patients evaluated for colic between January 1996 and July 2009 were reviewed, and horses with a Jockey Club Information Systems record were included. Physical examination and laboratory findings on hospital admission, lesion location and type, duration of surgery, duration of hospitalization, and any postoperative complications were recorded. The untreated cohort comprised 2 untreated horses randomly selected from runners in each treated horse's last race immediately prior to the date of colic surgery. Records were obtained from the Jockey Club Information Systems in April 2011. Only horses that raced at least once before and after surgery were included in the performance analysis. Number of starts, earnings per start, and total earnings were determined from race records for all horses. Quarterly earnings and number of starts for 12 quarters following the date of surgery were compared between treated and untreated horses via a Wilcoxon rank sum test. Longevity of racing was assessed by means of survival analysis. Poisson regression was used to compare rates of return to racing and active quarters aggregated across the first 12 quarters after surgery and for the available follow-up period for treated and untreated horses.
Results—45 of 59 (76%) horses that raced prior to surgery returned to racing. Return to racing was significantly associated with admission heart rate and blood lactate concentration. From quarters 3 to 12, treated and untreated horses had slight differences in the number of starts but no difference in earnings per quarter. Treated and untreated horses had no difference in total number of quarters raced, number of starts, or earnings after surgery. Treated horses had higher earnings per start, compared with untreated horses.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In the present study, racing Thoroughbreds that underwent colic surgery and successfully returned to racing had no differences in performance variables, compared with their untreated cohorts.
OBJECTIVE To describe gastrointestinal histologic findings for horses with recurrent colic and evaluate possible associations between initial clinical signs, biopsy method, histologic diagnosis, and outcome 1 year after hospital discharge.
DESIGN Retrospective case series.
ANIMALS 66 horses with a history of recurrent colic for which gastrointestinal specimens had been submitted for histologic examination.
PROCEDURES Histologic diagnosis was categorized as inflammatory, neoplastic, ischemic, other, and undiagnosed. Relationships among initial clinical features, biopsy method, histologic diagnosis, and outcome 1 year after hospital discharge (ie, alive vs dead and persistent recurrent colic [yes vs no]) and between corticosteroid treatment and outcome were investigated. Odds ratios and hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated.
RESULTS Inflammatory disease (36/66 [55%]) was the most common histologic diagnosis. Horses undergoing rectal biopsy alone were significantly (OR, 14.4; 95% Cl, 2.7 to 76.1) more likely to not have a histologic diagnosis than were horses in which other biopsy methods were used. In multivariable modelling, persistence of recurrent colic (HR, 15.2; 95% Cl, 1.9 to 121.2) and a history of weight loss (HR, 4.9; 95% Cl, 1.4 to 16.5) were significantly associated with outcome (alive vs dead) 1 year after surgery. Corticosteroid treatment was not significantly associated with either outcome.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that a high proportion (36/66 [55%]) of horses with recurrent colic had inflammatory gastrointestinal disease. Use of rectal biopsy alone to obtain biopsy specimens was more likely to result in no histologic diagnosis. Use of corticosteroids in horses with inflammatory gastrointestinal disease was not associated with outcome but warrants further investigation.
Objective—To determine historical, physical, and microbiologic findings in horses with limb cellulitis and identify factors associated with short- and long-term outcome.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—44 horses with limb cellulitis.
Procedures—Information obtained from medical records included use, history, affected limb, diagnostic procedures, treatment, and short-term outcome. Long-term follow-up information was obtained by means of a telephone survey.
Results—Twenty-four horses had primary cellulitis, and 18 of the 24 (75%) had a hind limb affected. Results of microbiologic culture were positive for all 20 horses with primary cellulitis from which specimens were obtained, with coagulase-positive Staphylococcus spp recovered from 12 of the 20. Short-term survival rate was 67% (16/24) for horses with primary cellulitis; 7 of the 9 horses available for long-term follow-up were being used for their intended use, and 4 had had a recurrence. Results of microbiologic culture were positive for 13 of the 16 (81%) horses with secondary cellulitis from which specimens were obtained. Short-term survival rate for horses with secondary cellulitis was 90% (18/20). Eleven of the 17 horses available for long-term follow-up were being used for their intended use; 2 had had a recurrence.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that cellulitis can be a life-threatening condition in horses. Horses that were febrile at admission or that developed laminitis were significantly less likely to survive. The prognosis for return to function was guarded, and recurrence was a potential concern.
Objective—To determine the outcome of horses
with basal fractures of the proximal sesamoid bone
from which a fracture fragment involving a portion of
the base of the bone was removed arthroscopically
and to determine whether fragment size was associated
Procedure—Dorsopalmar and axial-abaxial lengths of
the fracture fragment were measured on the dorsopalmar
and mediolateral radiographic views,
respectively, and percentage of the base of the
sesamoid bone involved was estimated. Fractures
were classified as grade 1 (≤ 25% of the base
involved) or grade 2 (> 25% but < 100% of the base
involved). Outcome was classified as successful if the
horse started at least 2 races or unsuccessful if the
horse started only 1 race or failed to return to racing.
Results—There were 24 racehorses and 2 nonracehorses.
Twelve (50%) of the racehorses returned to
racing and started at least 2 races. Eight of 14 horses
with grade-1 fractures and 4 of 10 horses with grade-
2 fractures had a successful outcome. Ten of 16 horses
without associated articular disease had successful
outcomes, compared with 2 of 8 horses with associated
articular disease. However, fragment size and
presence of associated articular disease were not significantly
associated with outcome.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Horses with
basal fractures of the proximal sesamoid bone from
which a fracture fragment involving a portion of the
base of the bone is removed arthroscopically have a
fair prognosis for return to racing. (J Am Vet Med
Case Description—6 female alpacas, ranging in age from < 1 day to > 2 years, were examined because of primary owner complaints related to urogenital malformation.
Clinical Findings—In all instances, the vulva was totally to subtotally imperforate. One neonate had failure of passive transfer of immunity and mild azotemia at the time of initial examination. No additional urogenital malformations were detected in any of the alpacas.
Treatment and Outcome—Vulvoplasty performed via local anesthesia was successful in all alpacas. The neonate with failure of passive transfer received a plasma transfusion. Postsurgical wound management was limited to topically applied medications.
Clinical Relevance—Congenital vulvar deformity in alpacas may result in interference with urine outflow. Neonates with a completely imperforate vulva may be brought to veterinarians for examination on an emergency basis. Less severely affected alpacas may be examined later in life with owner complaints ranging from stranguria or dysuria to urogenital malformation. No other primary abnormalities of the urogenital tract in alpacas have been reported, to the authors' knowledge. Vulvoplasty, performed with local anesthesia, resolves obstructed urine flow. Because it is possible that this condition is heritable, affected alpacas, and possibly their sires and dams, should not be used for breeding.
Objective—To evaluate the use of serum concentrations
of biochemical markers of bone metabolism
(osteocalcin [OC], bone-specific alkaline phosphatase
[BS-ALP], and deoxypyridinoline [DPYR]) to compare
healing in infected versus noninfected fractures and in
fractures with normal repair versus delayed (nonunion)
repair in rabbits.
Animals—32 female 9- to 10-month-old New Zealand
Procedure—A femoral fracture defect was made in
each rabbit. Rabbits were assigned to the following
groups: the bone morphogenetic-2 gene treatment
group with either noninfected nonunion or infected (ie,
inoculation of defects with Staphylococcus aureus)
nonunion fractures or the luciferase (control) gene
treatment group with either noninfected nonunion or
infected nonunion fractures. Serum samples were
obtained before surgery (time 0) and 4, 8, 12, and 16
weeks after surgery. Callus formation and lysis grades
were evaluated radiographically at 16 weeks.
Results—Serum OC and BS-ALP concentrations
decreased from time 0 at 4 weeks, peaked at 8
weeks, and then decreased. Serum DPYR concentration
peaked at 4 weeks and then decreased, independent
of gene treatment group or fracture infection
status. Compared with rabbits with noninfected fractures,
those with infected fractures had lower serum
OC and BS-ALP concentrations at 4 weeks, higher
serum OC concentrations at 16 weeks, and higher
serum DPYR concentrations at 4, 8, and 16 weeks.
Combined serum OC, BS-ALP, and DPYR concentrations
provided an accuracy of 96% for prediction of
fracture infection status at 4 weeks.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Measurement
of multiple serum biochemical markers of bone
metabolism could be useful for clinical evaluation of
fracture healing and early diagnosis of osteomyelitis.
( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;64:727–735)
OBJECTIVE To characterize the fecal microbiota of horses and to investigate alterations in that microbiota on the basis of sample collection site (rectum vs stall floor), sample location within the fecal ball (center vs surface), and duration of environmental exposure (collection time).
ANIMALS 6 healthy adult mixed-breed mares.
PROCEDURES From each horse, feces were collected from the rectum and placed on a straw-bedded stall floor. A fecal ball was selected for analysis immediately after removal from the rectum and at 0 (immediately), 2, 6, 12, and 24 hours after placement on the stall floor. Approximately 250 mg of feces was extracted from the surface and center of each fecal ball, and genomic DNA was extracted, purified, amplified for the V1-V2 hypervariable region of the 16S rDNA gene, and analyzed with a bioinformatics pipeline.
RESULTS The fecal microbiota was unique for each horse. Bacterial community composition varied significantly between center and surface fecal samples but was not affected by collection time. Bacterial community composition varied rapidly for surface fecal samples. Individual bacterial taxa were significantly associated with both sample location and collection time but remained fairly stable for up to 6 hours for center fecal samples.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that, for horses, fecal samples for microbiota analysis should be extracted from the center of fecal balls collected within 6 hours after defecation. Samples obtained up to 24 hours after defecation can be analyzed with the realization that some bacterial populations may deviate from those immediately after defecation.
To evaluate effects of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1) inhibitors on the production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) by interferon-γ (IFN-γ)– and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of horses as an in vitro model of inflammation in horses.
1,440 samples of PBMCs from 6 healthy research horses.
From heparinized whole blood samples, PBMC cultures were obtained. An initial dose-response trial on 48 PBMC samples from 2 horses (24 samples each) was used to determine concentrations of IFN-γ and LPS for use as low- and high-level stimulation concentrations. Seventy-two PBMC samples from 6 horses were assigned equally to 1 of 4 PARP1 inhibition categories: no PARP1 inhibitor (PARP1 inhibition control); 2-((R)-2-methylpyrrolidin-2-yl)-1H-benzimidazole-4-carbozamide dihydrochloride (ABT888);4-(3-(1-(cyclopropanecarbonyl)piperazine-4-carbonyl)-4-fluorobenzyl)phthalazin-1(2H)-one (AZD2281); or N-(6-oxo-5,6-dihydrophenanthridin-2-yl) -N,N-dimethylacetamide hydrochloride (PJ34). Samples of PBMCs from each horse and each PARP1 inhibition category were then assigned to 1 of 3 levels of IFN-γ and LPS stimulation: none (control), low stimulation, or high stimulation. After a 24-hour incubation period, a TNF-α ELISA was used to measure TNF-α concentration in the supernatant. Results were compared across treatments and for each horse. Data were analyzed with repeated-measures ANOVA.
Median TNF-α concentration was significantly lower for PJ34-treated, high-level stimulated PBMCs than for PARP1 inhibition control, high-level stimulated PBMCs; however, no other meaningful differences in TNF-α concentration were detected among the inhibition and stimulation combinations.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Findings suggested that PJ34 PARP1 inhibition may reduce TNF-α production in horses, a potential benefit in reducing inflammation and endotoxin-induced damage in horses.
Objective—To document causes of colic in equine neonates, evaluate clinical features of neonates managed medically versus surgically, determine short- and long-term survival rates for neonates with specific medical and surgical lesions, and assess ability of patients to achieve intended use.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—137 client-owned equine neonates (< 30 days old) with a history of colic or signs of colic within 1 hour after hospital admission examined between 2000 and 2010.
Procedures—Signalment, history, results of physical examination, laboratory data, ancillary diagnostic tests, details of treatment, primary diagnosis, concurrent diseases and short-term survival rate were obtained from the medical records. Long-term follow-up information was obtained through phone survey.
Results—137 neonates with colic were included. The majority (122 [89%]) of neonates were managed medically. The 3 most common diagnoses associated with colic were enterocolitis (37 [27%]), meconium-associated colic (27 [20%]), and transient medical colic (26 [19%]). The most common reason for surgery was small intestinal strangulating obstruction, and these neonates were more likely to have severe, continuous pain and were less responsive to analgesics. Concurrent diseases were common (87 [64%]) but did not significantly impact survival rate. Short-term survival rate was not significantly different between medically (75%) and surgically (73%) managed neonates. Long-term survival rate was excellent (66/71 [93%]) for horses that survived to hospital discharge. Most neonates surviving to maturity were used as intended (49/59 [83%]).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Most neonates examined for signs of colic can be managed medically. Short-term survival rate in medically and surgically treated neonates was good. Long-term survival rate of foals discharged from the hospital was excellent, with most achieving intended use.