Objective—To compare morphometric measurements and serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) concentration in cats with and without hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), and assess the hypothesis that cats with HCM have larger body size and skeletal features and higher serum IGF-1 concentrations than healthy cats.
Animals—25 cats with HCM and 22 healthy control cats.
Procedures—Physical examination and echocardiography were performed to classify cats into the HCM and control groups. Data collected from each cat included diet history, body weight, body condition score, lengths of the humerus and 4th and 12th thoracic vertebrae, heart size, head length and width, and abdominal circumferences. Comparisons of these variables were made between groups.
Results—Body condition score in HCM-affected and control cats did not differ significantly. However, median head width; lengths of the head, 4th and 12th thoracic vertebrae, and humerus; and body weight in the HCM-affected group were significantly greater than values in the control group. Median serum concentration of IGF-1 was not significantly different between groups.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These data suggested that among the study cats, those with HCM were skeletally larger, but not more obese, than healthy cats. Whether this was attributable to differences in early growth or other causes requires additional investigation.
Objective—To compare plasma fatty acid concentrations and the relationships of fatty acids to arrhythmias in Boxers versus Doberman Pinschers.
Animals—38 Boxers and 13 Doberman Pinschers.
Procedures—Boxers and Doberman Pinschers evaluated via Holter recording and for which a blood sample was available were included. Echocardiograms were performed in 49 of 51 dogs. The number of ventricular premature complexes (VPCs)/24 h was counted and fatty acids analyzed. Plasma fatty acid concentrations and VPCs/24 h, as well as correlations between the 2 variables, were compared between the 2 breeds.
Results—Compared with the Doberman Pinschers, Boxers had significantly higher plasma concentrations of γ-linolenic acid but lower concentrations of arachidonic acid. Total n-6 fatty acids and total polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations were higher in Doberman Pinschers. There were significant, but weak, positive correlations between VPCs and oleic acid, total n-3 fatty acids, and total n-9 fatty acids in Boxers but not in Doberman Pinschers.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Data suggested that plasma fatty acid concentrations may differ between Boxers and Doberman Pinschers and that the relationship between fatty acid concentrations and VPCs may be different between these 2 breeds.
Objective—To develop and assess the reproducibility of a protocol to noninvasively test endothelial function in dogs on the basis of the flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) procedure used in humans.
Animals—5 healthy spayed female dogs.
Procedures—Luminal arterial diameter and blood flow velocity in the brachial and femoral arteries were measured with ultrasonography. The within-dog reproducibility of these ultrasonographic measurements was tested. An occlusion period of 1, 3, or 5 minutes with an inflatable cuff was used to create the FMD response. Measurements made at 15, 30, and 60 seconds following release of the occlusion were compared with measurements made immediately prior to each occlusion to assess the FMD response.
Results—Within-dog reproducibility of measurements revealed moderate to high correlations. Change from baseline in luminal arterial diameter was most substantial when measured at 30 seconds following release of occlusion, whereas blood flow velocity changes were maximal when measured at 15 seconds following release. The brachial imaging site provided a larger number of significant FMD responses than the femoral site. The 3-minute occlusion period provided equal or better responses than the 5-minute occlusion period.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ultrasonographic measurement of the FMD responses was a feasible and reproducible technique and significant changes from baseline were detected. The FMD responses in dogs were most substantial when performed at the brachial artery with blood flow velocity and luminal arterial diameter changes from baseline measured at 15 and 30 seconds, respectively, following release of a 3-minute occlusion period.