Objective—To provide a detailed description of cross-sectional anatomic structures of the manus in canine cadavers in association with corresponding features in computed tomographic (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) images.
Sample Population—7 cadavers of adult large-breed–type dogs (weight range, 25 to 30 kg) without forelimb disease.
Procedures—Forelimbs were removed from the cadavers within 4 hours after euthanasia and frozen. The right forelimbs of 3 cadavers were cut into 4-mm sections by use of a band saw; 1 limb each was sectioned in the transverse, dorsal, or sagittal plane. Sections were cleaned and then photographed. After thawing, transverse CT images of the right forelimbs of 3 additional cadavers were obtained, and the right forelimb of a seventh cadaver underwent MR imaging in the transverse, sagittal, and dorsal planes. The evaluated regions extended from the digits to the carpus. Features in CT and MR images that corresponded to clinically important anatomic structures in tissue sections were identified.
Results—For most of the anatomic structures evident in tissue sections, corresponding CT and MR imaging features were identified. Osseous and musculotendinous structures of the manus were readily detected in CT and MR images, whereas vascular structures were only rarely identified by use of the imaging techniques.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of the detailed assessment of anatomic structures of the canine manus in association with corresponding features in CT and MR images will facilitate detection of pathological conditions and be beneficial in planning surgical procedures for diseases of the manus in dogs.
Objective—To evaluate nonselective computed
tomographic (CT) venography for evaluating the cervical
internal vertebral venous plexus (IVVP), define the
diameter and area dimensions of the IVVP, and determine
the relationship between dimensions of the cervical
IVVP and other vertebral components in medium-sized dogs.
Animals—6 healthy dogs that weighed 18 to 27 kg.
Procedure—Helical CT scans were performed from
C1 to C7 before and after IV injection of contrast medium
(480 mg of iodine/kg) and a continuous infusion
(240 mg of iodine/kg). Image data were transferred to
a CT workstation, and measurements were performed
on displayed transverse images. Diameter and area
measurements of the vertebral canal, dural sac, IVVP,
and vertebral body were obtained at C3 to C7.
Results—Opacification of vertebral venous structures
was achieved in all dogs with no adverse reactions.
Sagittal diameters of the IVVP for C3 to C7 ranged
from 0.6 to 3.2 mm. Transverse diameters ranged
from 2.32 to 5.74 mm. The IVVP area represented
12.4% of the mean vertebral canal transverse area
and 30.61% of the mean vertebral epidural space
area. Area measurements of the IVVP were significantly
correlated with vertebral canal area and dural
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated
that nonselective CT venography is a safe, sensitive
method for performing morphometric assessments
of the cervical IVVP in dogs. Findings support
the theory that there may be a physiologic or developmental
relationship between cervical vertebral canal
components. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:2039–2045)
Objective—To describe the vascular distribution pattern of contrast medium during intraosseous regional perfusion (IORP) of the distal portion of the equine forelimb.
Sample Population—13 cadaveric forelimbs from 12 horses without forelimb diseases.
Procedures—Serial lateromedial radiographic views were taken of the distal portion of 10 heparinized cadaveric forelimbs at 0, 1, 2, 6, 15, and 30 minutes during IORP of the third metacarpal bone (MCIII) by use of iodinated contrast medium and a tourniquet placed over the proximal portion of MCIII. Vascular regions of interest (ROI) were created for each radiograph. Reviewers identified the presence or absence of contrast medium–induced opacified vessels in all ROI on radiographs. This information was summarized to identify vessel-filling patterns over time. Vessel identification was verified by use of computed tomography angiography and latex perfusion studies on the distal portion of separate cadaveric forelimbs.
Results—During IORP, contrast medium filled the medullary cavity of the MCIII; exited via transcortical vessels; and diffused distally to the remaining arteries and veins of the forelimb, distal to the tourniquet. Maximum vessel and soft tissue opacification occurred in most specimens at 6 and 30 minutes, respectively. Serial radiography vessel patterns matched those of computed tomography images and dissected specimens.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—IORP provides a repeatable pattern of vascular distribution in the distal portion of the equine forelimb. To our knowledge, our study provides the first documentation of arterial perfusion by use of IORP; results of previous reports indicate that IORP delivers medications to only the venous vessels of the perfused forelimb.